Just another WordPress.com weblog with my stories and education tutorial

Posts tagged ‘business’

EBOOK BPMN business process modelling notation V1 – may 2004


EBOOK BPMN business process modelling notation V1 – may 2004

*this sharing is for education purpose*

BPMN business process modelling notation V1 – may 2004

Advertisements

Business Process Management Practical Guidelines to Successful Implementations


Business Process Management Practical Guidelines to Successful Implementations by John Jeston and Johan Nelis

*this sharing for education purpose *
Business Process Management Practical Guidelines

BEST COMMUNICATIONS & MANAGEMENT SCHOOL 2011


 BEST COMMUNICATIONS & MANAGEMENT SCHOOL 2011

BEST COMMUNICATIONS & MANAGEMENT SCHOOL 2011

 

majalah yang baru buat calon mahasiwa untuk menjadi pedoman mancari kampus terbaik.

MIX Edisi MARET 2011

BEST COMMUNICATIONS & MANAGEMENT SCHOOL 2011
Bagaimana mereka membangun merek dan reputasi serta menjaring mahasiswa/i?

MENGGARAP NICHE AUDIENCE
Whiskas berkomunikasi dengan penggemar kucing

REVOLUSI PERILAKU KONSUMEN
Migrasi konsumen kamera digital ke DSLR

INDONESIA TWEEPS BEHAVIOR
Orang INDONESIA lebih senang me-retweet

Baca selengkapnya di MIX Edisi terbaru!

akreditasi di indonesia


akreditasi di indonesia yang kurang transparan  dan tidak ada sosialisasi dari universitas dan tidak ada standar baku nya. sehingga merugikan kampus2 dan membingungkan calon mahasiswa mencari sekolah yang terbaik. dan kalau dari hasil surver dari pihak ketiga, itupun cuma mensurvey univ2 yang akreditasi nya A.

 

source artikel dari kompas.com

===============================================================

Target 2012 seharusnya dibarengi upaya yang lebih keras dari pemerintah untuk memperbaiki sistem akreditasi yang selama ini dijalankan BAN-PT.

JAKARTA, KOMPAS.com – Badan Akreditasi Nasional Perguruan Tinggi (BAN-PT) perlu mensosialisasikan informasi yang lengkap terkait nilai akreditasi program studi yang akan diberikan kepada perguruan tinggi. Pemerintah pun tak bisa begitu saja menetapkan target kepada BAN-PT agar semua perguruan tinggi selesai diakreditasi pada 2012.

“Seharusnya ada informasi yang jelas dan lengkap mengenai nilai akreditasi A, B, atau C dari suatu perguruan tinggi,” tandas Rektor Universitas Bina Nusantara (Binus University) Harjanto Prabowo, Rabu (2/11/2010), di Jakarta.

Menurutnya, di Perguruan Tinggi Swasta (PTS) pihak user harus mengetahui nilai-nilai akreditasi. Mengetahui kejelasan nilai akreditasi adalah hak pengguna atau perguruan tinggi.

“Jika semua mau berkomitmen meningkatkan mutu pendidikan, saya rasa tidak akan menjadi masalah. Tenaga ditambahkan, biaya dicukupkan, kemudian secara sadar pemerintah merasa ini harus diperbaiki, ya, dilakukanlah,” tegas Harjanto.

Harjanto menilai, pemerintah tidak bisa begitu saja menargetkan tahun 2012 semua perguruan tinggi sudah terakreditasi. Target tersebut seharusnya dibarengi upaya yang lebih keras dari pemerintah untuk memperbaiki sistem akreditasi yang selama ini dijalankan BAN-PT.

Disinggung mengenai pembayaran yang dilakukan sebagai uang pendaftaran akreditasi, Harjanto menilai tidak perlu dilakukan. Meski sekedar uang pendaftaran, kata dia, hal itu tidak perlu karena bisa menimbulkan dampak conflict of interest.

“Diharuskan membayar tidak masalah, asalkan terbuka dan jangan menimbulkan rasa tidak aman dan tentunya, pembayaran untuk akreditasi ini tidak sampai mengurangi kualitas pendidikan,” imbuh Harjanto.
Rektor ITB: Tak Perlu BAN-PT Tandingan!

Akhmaloka menambahkan, cara paling tepat dilakukan adalah menempatkan
BAN-PT di wilayah-wilayah tertentu. BAN-PT itulah yang akan
mengakreditasi perguruan tinggi di wilayah kerjanya saja.

JAKARTA, KOMPAS.com – Pengusulan Badan Akreditasi Perguruan Tinggi (BAN-PT) lain dirasakan bukan solusi yang tepat untuk mempercepat proses kinerja kerja BAN-PT. Tidak perlu ada BAN-PT tandingan.

Demikian diungkapkan Rektor Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) Prof Akhmaloka, Selasa (2/11/2010), di Bandung. “Dulu pernah ada wacana sebuah perguruan tinggi boleh mengakreditasi perguruan tinggi lain, tetapi ini jelas tidak etis. Jika dibuat BAN-PT tandingan ini juga tidak bisa,” ucap Akhmaloka.

Menurutnya, cara paling tepat dilakukan menempatkan BAN-PT di wilayah-wilayah tertentu. Seperti instansi perwakilan, BAN-PT tersebut akan mengakreditasi perguruan tinggi di wilayah kerjanya.

Dia menambahkan, tidak heran jika saat ini BAN-PT kewalahan dengan banyaknya permohonan akreditasi. Selama ini semua pekerjaan akreditasi menumpuk di BAN-PT.

“Salah satu penyebabnya bukan karena kekurangan orang, melainkan kekurangan bensin untuk menjalankan orang tersebut,” imbuh Akhmaloka.

Akhmaloka mengatakan, jika memang perguruan tinggi diharuskan membayar saat mendaftar akreditasi, hal itu bukan merupakan persoalan. Hal tersebut bisa dianggap sebagai pendaftaran, sehingga dengan begitu BAN akan dianggap semakin profesional dalam bekerja.

Di sisi lain, mencari asesor yang menilai akreditasi di perguruan tinggi juga sulit. Belum lagi ongkos untuk membiayai asesor ke lapangan dan melakukan pengecekan ulang ke perguruan tinggi yang bersangkutan. Alangkah baiknya, kata Akhmaloka, jika saat penilaian proposal asesor cukup dikirimkan data berupa soft copy.

“Tidak perlu datang ke Jakarta, karena dengan begini akan jauh lebih hemat dan efisien,” ungkap Akhmaloka.

Diberitakan sebelumnya, pemerintah diusulkan membentuk badan akreditasi lain selain BAN-PT untuk mempercepat proses akreditasi. Apalagi jika BAN-PT kewalahan dengan banyaknya permohonan akreditasi.

Usulan tersebut mengemuka dalam workshop akreditasi ”AACSB Processes and Policies Described to Assist Schools in Their Pursuit of Quality of Management Education”, Senin (1/11/2010), di Kampus Prasetya Mulya, Tangerang, Banten. Ketua Badan Akreditasi Nasional Perguruan Tinggi (BAN-PT), Kamanto Sunato, mengaku, penambahan badan akreditasi dan aturan-aturan akreditasi sepenuhnya di tangan Kementerian Pendidikan Nasional karena BAN-PT hanya lembaga pelaksana.
Rektor ITS: Kerja BAN-PT Belum Optimal!
JAKARTA, KOMPAS.com — Badan Akreditasi Nasional Perguruan Tinggi  perlu banyak masukan untuk kinerjanya ke depan. Manajemen di dalam instansi tersebut masih kurang optimal dan harus segera diperbaiki.

Demikian diungkapkan Rektor Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya (ITS), Priyo Suprobo, kepada Kompas.com di Jakarta, Selasa (2/11/2010). “Saran saya, pertama, agar lebih cepat dalam menilai akreditasi perguruan tinggi BAN-PT bisa menggunakan kecanggihan teknologi informasi, yaitu dengan memasukkan data ke komputer sehingga pengecekan oleh asesor menjadi lebih mudah,” kata Priyo.

Kedua, lanjut dia, mencari tambahan Badan Akreditasi Nasional Perguruan Tinggi (BAN-PT) lain. Menurutnya, menggunakan instansi sejenis dari luar selama bisa membantu kerja BAN-PT dan mempercepat akreditasi, bukan suatu masalah.

“Asal tetap berpikir positif, kemudian terserah masyarakat yang menilainya,” imbuh Priyo.

Menggunakan BAN-PT internasional, kata Priyo, asalkan diakui, seperti ISO, juga bisa dilakukan. Syaratnya, akreditasi yang ditawarkan kepada masyarakat itu valid dan tidak menipu.

Saran ketiga, perguruan tinggi besar yang sudah terakreditasi A sudah boleh mengakreditasi program studi di perguruan tingginya masing-masing. Dengan cara itu, perguruan tinggi bersangkutan tidak perlu ke Jakarta untuk mengakreditasi program studinya sendiri.

“Jika semakin ingin berkembang, perguruan tinggi dengan nilai akreditasi C bisa meminta bantuan dari perguruan tinggi akreditasi A untuk dibina,” imbuhnya.

Diberitakan sebelumnya, pemerintah diusulkan membentuk badan akreditasi lain selain BAN-PT untuk mempercepat proses akreditasi. Apalagi jika BAN-PT kewalahan dengan banyaknya permohonan akreditasi.

Usulan tersebut mengemuka dalam workshop akreditasi ”AACSB Processes and Policies Described to Assist Schools in Their Pursuit of Quality of Management Education”, Senin (1/11/2010), di Kampus Prasetya Mulya, Tangerang, Banten. Ketua BAN-PT, Kamanto Sunato, mengaku, penambahan badan akreditasi dan aturan-aturan akreditasi sepenuhnya di tangan Kementerian Pendidikan Nasional karena BAN-PT hanya lembaga pelaksana.

Namun, usul tersebut langsung ditepis oleh Rektor Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Prof Akhmaloka. Pengusulan BAN-PT lain dirasakan bukanlah solusi yang tepat untuk mempercepat proses kinerja BAN-PT, yang sampai saat ini dinilai tidak perlu memiliki tandingan.

“Dulu pernah ada wacana sebuah perguruan tinggi boleh mengakreditasi perguruan tinggi lain, tetapi ini jelas tidak etis. Jika dibuat BAN-PT tandingan, ini juga tidak bisa,” ucap Akhmaloka.

BAN PT Kewalahan, Perlu Badan Lain..

TANGERANG, KOMPAS.com — Pemerintah diusulkan membentuk badan akreditasi lain selain BAN-PT untuk mempercepat proses akreditasi. Apalagi jika BAN-PT kewalahan dengan banyaknya permohonan akreditasi.

Usulan tersebut mengemuka dalam workshop akreditasi ”AACSB Processes and Policies Described to Assist Schools in Their Pursuit of Quality of Management Education”, Senin (1/11/2010), di Kampus Prasetya Mulya, Tangerang, Banten. Ketua Badan Akreditasi Nasional Perguruan Tinggi (BAN-PT), Kamanto Sunato, mengaku, penambahan badan akreditasi dan aturan-aturan akreditasi sepenuhnya di tangan Kementerian Pendidikan Nasional karena BAN-PT hanya lembaga pelaksana.

Chairman Executive Board Yayasan Prasetya Mulya, Djisman Simandjuntak, mengingatkan, akreditasi hanya sebagian kecil dari proses perbaikan mutu pendidikan tinggi. Untuk meraih lulusan perguruan tinggi yang berkualitas, pemerintah seharusnya rela untuk menyediakan sumber daya manusia dan anggaran.

”Jumlah mahasiswa meningkat. Permintaan lulusan yang berkualitas juga meningkat. Peran pemerintah penting, tetapi yang lebih penting lagi kerja sama antarinstitusi pendidikan. Saingan boleh-boleh saja, tetapi kerja sama tetap penting,” kata Djisman.

Peningkatan kualitas institusi pendidikan tinggi ini penting sebab, menurut Kamanto, masih banyak perguruan tinggi yang gagal mendapatkan akreditasi karena kualitas dan kuantitas dosen serta kelengkapan fasilitas belajar yang belum memenuhi syarat.

”Banyak perguruan tinggi yang dosennya sering tidak ada, kurikulum tidak jelas, atau fasilitas belajar seperti di SMA,” ujarnya. (LUK)

8.000 Program Studi Belum Terakreditasi

JAKARTA, KOMPAS.com – Akreditasi perguruan tinggi harus difokuskan dulu pada program studi. Ada sekitar 8.000 program studi dari 15.000 program studi perguruan tinggi negeri (PTN) dan perguruan tinggi swasta (PTS) yang belum diakreditasi atau perlu diakreditasi ulang.

Demikian Wakil Menteri Pendidikan Nasional Fasli Jalal di Jakarta, Rabu (27/10/2010), terkait mendesaknya akreditasi semua program studi di perguruan tinggi negeri dan swasta untuk diselesaikan akhir 2012. Untuk itu, kata Fasli, Badan Akreditasi Nasional Perguruan Tinggi (BAN-PT) perlu merespons keluhan dan masukan dari perguruan tinggi terkait proses akreditasi di lapangan.

Fasli menambahkan, hingga saat ini BAN-PT dinilai pemerintah sebagai institusi yang kredibel untuk melaksanakan akreditasi perguruan tinggi. Anggota-anggota BAN-PT dipilih sesuai prosedur dan ditetapkan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional. Guna mempercepat proses akreditasi semua program studi, menurut Fasli, pemerintah telah meningkatkan anggaran untuk BAN-PT.

Akreditasi tahun 2010 yang awalnya direncanakan bagi 2.500 program studi ditambah hingga menjadi 4.000 program studi. Tahun berikutnya jumlahnya juga sama.

Bambang Supriyadi, Koordinator Kopertis Wilayah V Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, mengatakan, sosialisasi BAN-PT mesti lebih gencar lagi di daerah. Umumnya, kendala yang dihadapi untuk ikut akreditasi karena tidak punya data leng- kap dan belum memenuhi kondisi minimum untuk ikut akreditasi.

”BAN-PT dengan kopertis di semua wilayah bisa bekerja sama untuk bisa membantu perguruan tinggi ikut akreditasi. Mereka memang perlu pembinaan untuk lebih mudah memahami cara mengevaluasi diri yang baik dan menyemangati untuk bisa menyelesaikan kelengkapan akreditasi,” ujar Bambang yang juga mantan asesor BAN-PT. (ELN)

Akreditasi Perlu Diperbaiki


JAKARTA, KOMPAS.com – Pemerintah harus segera membenahi sistem akreditasi perguruan tinggi yang saat ini banyak dikeluhkan karena berjalan lamban. Perlu dicari terobosan untuk segera menuntaskan persoalan akreditasi yang dalam implementasinya masih banyak masalah.

Hal itu mengemuka dari pandangan sejumlah pimpinan perguruan tinggi negeri dan swasta serta Koordinasi Perguruan Tinggi Swasta (Kopertis) dari berbagai wilayah di Indonesia, Selasa (26/10/2010). Semua pihak menyadari perlunya akreditasi untuk menjamin mutu layanan pendidikan tinggi pada masyarakat.

Rektor Universitas Negeri Makassar Arismunandar mengatakan, Badan Akreditasi Nasional Perguruan Tinggi (BAN-PT) perlu membenahi sistem kerjanya. Perguruan tinggi merasa perlu ada proses banding jika merasa tidak puas dengan penilaian akreditasi oleh asesor pertama.

”Kami kaget karena nilai akreditasi program studi di perguruan tinggi kami turun. Padahal, kami merasa telah meningkatkan tata kelola di program studi itu dan merasa yakin nilai akreditasinya minimal sama dengan sebelumnya,” kata Arismunandar.

Program studi yang akreditasinya turun, salah satunya Fisika. Sebelumnya bisa mencapai nilai akreditasi B, tetapi akreditasi terbaru turun menjadi C.

”Kami jadi bertanya-tanya di mana realibilitas penilaian badan akreditasi itu? Kami minta untuk ada penilaian pembanding, tetapi sulit dipenuhi. Diminta untuk ikut akreditasi ulang yang mesti menunggu setahun kemudian,” ujar Arismunandar.

Suharyadi, Ketua Umum Asosiasi Perguruan Tinggi Swasta Indonesia (APTISI), mengatakan, banyak perguruan tinggi swasta (PTS) ternama yang juga turun nilai akreditasinya.

Bagi PTS yang jumlahnya saat ini tercatat 3.100 institusi, akreditasi itu sangat penting untuk meraih kepercayaan masyarakat. Adapun PTN, meski nilai akreditasinya cukup, tetap diburu masyarakat karena menganggap lebih bergengs

Akreditasi PTS Terlalu Dipaksakan

sosiasi Perguruan Tinggi Swasta Indonesia (APTISI) menolak badan akreditasi nasional perguruan tinggi (BAN PT) sebagai satu-satunya badan akreditasi nasional bagi perguruan tinggi. BAN PT saat ini dinilai tidak kompeten lagi menangani akreditasi program studi seluruh perguruan tinggi dengan obyektif, transparan, terbuka, serta komprehensif.

Hal tersebut disampaikan Ketua APTISI, Suharyadi, dan beberapa perwakilan perguruan tinggi lainnya sebagai sebuah deklarasi di Jakarta, Jumat (13/8/2010). Dalam deklarasi yang berisi tujuh butir penolakan tersebut Suharyadi mengungkapkan, APTISI yang anggotanya lebih dari 3000 PTS mengeluhkan proses penilaian akreditasi PTS yang dilakukan oleh BAN PT.

“Terjadi penurunan yang drastis sejak saat ini. Yang dapat A sekitar 24 persen pada 1997, sekarang jadi tinggal 8 persen. Lebih tidak masuk akal lagi, PTS tidak tahu dan mengerti penyebab penurunan tersebut. Sangat tidak transparan,” ucap Suharyadi.

Anggota BAN PT, lanjut Suharyadi, tidak dapat memahami kondisi PTS-PTS di Indonesia, terutama seperti yang ada di daerah. Ia mengaku tak habis pikir melihat sebagian besar PTS mengalami penurunan akreditasi yang sangat drastis.

“Akreditasi ini ditekankan untuk mengarahkan PTS sebagai world class of university tetapi semua standarnya disamakan. Lha, bagaimana PTS yang ada di daerah. Teman-teman kami yang di Papua tentu saja teriak tidak sanggup,” ujar Rektor Universitas Mercu Buana ini.

Menurutnya, ada asesor (personalia BAN PT) yang menggunakan standar luar negeri untuk mengakreditasi perguruan tinggi di daerah. Hal ini menjadi suatu ketidakadilan dan terlihat dilakukan tanpa pertimbangan yang matang.

Pada kesempatan yang sama, Ketua APTISI Jawa Barat, Budi Djatmiko mengatakan, standar akreditasi yang ditetapkan BAN PT mensyaratkan suatu perguruan tinggi memiliki sejumlah dosen yang terakreditasi. Syarat itu dinilainya sulit dipenuhi PTS di daerah karena dosen-dosen mereka cenderung sulit mendapatkan bantuan dana untuk penelitian sebagai syarat akreditasi dosen.

“Dosen di PTN mampu melakukan riset karena disokong dana. Kalau swasta, tidak mungkin, apalagi yang kecil. Untuk cost penelitian, setiap dosen itu sulit sekali mendapatkannya,” ujarnya.

Dengan demikian, lanjut Budi, Dinas Pendidikan Tinggi Kementrian Pendidikan Nasional (Dikti Kemdiknas) belum berhasil meningkatkan akreditasi perguruan tinggi serta membina PTS dalam meningkatkan kualitasnya.

“Saat ini kita punya 15.000 program studi dengan jumlah doktor 23.000 dari jumlah total dosen di seluruh Indonesia mencapai 270.000. Dari situ kita bisa katakan mustahil bisa mencapai standar kalau setiap tahun satu PTS hanya satu dosen saja yang disertifikasi. Ini terbukti, antara BAN PT dan Dikti tidak ada koordinasi, terlalu dipaksakan,” tambah Bud

Tahu Kenapa PTS Ogah Ajukan Akreditasi?

JAKARTA, KOMPAS.com – Ketua Umum Asosiasi Perguruan Tinggi Swasta Indonesia (APTISI) Suharyadi memaparkan, banyak perguruan tinggi swasta (PTS) ternama yang saat ini juga turun nilai akreditasinya. Banyak PTS kecil dan baru belum mengajukan akreditasi karena penilaian yang ada sekarang ini tidak mempertimbangkan kondisi riil di lapangan.

”Untuk evaluasi dalam borang yang terbaru tidak sesuai dengan kondisi di lapangan. Kami melihat antara program Ditjen Pendidikan Tinggi dan BAN-PT tidak sinkron dan merugikan PTS yang sudah diberi izin operasional,” kata Suharyadi.

Jika hanya mengandalkan BAN-PT yang tenaganya dan dananya terbatas, kata Suharyadi, persoalan akreditasi program studi perguruan tinggi tidak akan tuntas. Selain merugikan perguruan tinggi, masyarakatlah yang paling terkena imbasnya.

Bambang Supriyadi, Koordinator Kopertis Wilayah V Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, mengatakan, dari 530 program studi PTS di Yogyakarta, ada 140 program studi yang belum diakreditasi. Hal itu karena program studi masih baru atau memang belum diajukan. Sementara program studi yang sudah terakreditasi ada yang statusnya sudah kedaluwarsa.

”Bukannya PTS tidak mengurus. Banyak yang sudah mengajukan, tetapi hingga enam bulan belum diproses. Jadinya kedaluwarsa,” kata Bambang.

Menurut Bambang, jika mengandalkan BAN-PT memang sulit untuk menuntaskan akreditasi semua program studi. Pemerintah bisa saja mengembangkan badan akreditasi lain sesuai rumpun keilmuan yang tetap bekerja sama dengan BAN-PT. ”Perlu terobosan karena dengan sistem yang sekarang, proses akreditasi belum sesuai harapan,” ujar Bambang. (ELN)


Akreditasi Harus Selesai 2012

JAKARTA, KOMPAS.com – Akreditasi semua program studi di perguruan tinggi negeri dan swasta harus selesai akhir 2012. Untuk itu, Badan Akreditasi Nasional Perguruan Tinggi perlu merespons keluhan dan masukan dari perguruan tinggi terkait proses akreditasi di lapangan.

”Pemerintah berharap supaya komunikasi antara Badan Akreditasi Nasional Perguruan Tinggi dan pengguna, dalam hal ini dengan semua perguruan tinggi, bisa berjalan baik,” kata Wakil Menteri Pendidikan Nasional Fasli Jalal di Jakarta, Rabu (27/10/2010).

Badan Akreditasi Nasional Perguruan Tinggi (BAN-PT) mesti responsif pada klien atau penggunanya serta meningkatkan kinerjanya. Sesuai dengan ketentuan dalam Undang-Undang Nomor 20 Tahun 2003 tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional dan Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 19 Tahun 2005 tentang Badan Standar Nasional Pendidikan, akreditasi diwajibkan untuk menjamin mutu layanan pendidikan.

Jika hingga akhir 2012 suatu program studi tidak juga terakreditasi cukup, berarti tidak bisa mengeluarkan ijazah kelulusan. Program studi tersebut harus diampu perguruan tinggi lain yang memiliki program studi sejenis supaya ijazah mahasiswanya sah. (ELN)

Akreditasi Lamban, Mahasiwa Kena Imbas

JAKARTA, KOMPAS.com — Kinerja Badan Akreditasi Nasional Perguruan Tinggi (BAN-PT) mulai tidak memuaskan perguruan tinggi dan masyarakat. BAN-PT sebagai satu-satunya institusi akreditasi perguruan tinggi yang diakui pemerintah dinilai lamban menuntaskan akreditasi semua program studi di perguruan tinggi negeri dan swasta.

Dampaknya bukan hanya dirasakan institusi pendidikan tinggi yang teancam tidak bisa mengeluarkan ijazah buat mahasiswa. Para mahasiswa pun terganjal saat melamar pekerjaan, terutama dalam proses perekrutan calon pegawai negeri sipil (CPNS) karena program studi tidak terakreditasi.

Hanung Kumala Dewi, alumni Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta, Senin (25/10/2010), mengatakan, kinerja BAN-PT yang lamban merugikan dirinya. Ketika hendak mengikuti tes CPNS di Kementerian Luar Negeri pada Agustus lalu, lulusan program studi Administrasi Negara Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik ini terjegal di proses pendaftaran awal. Pasalnya, saat hendak registrasi online, program studi administrasi negara Fisip UGM tidak ada.

“Ketika saya tanya ke panitia karena masalah akreditasi. Intinya, program studi administrasi negara UGM tidak ada akreditasinya dari BAN-PT. Saya merasa heran kenapa itu bisa terjadi. Wong ketika wisuda Februari lalu saya sudah dapat akreditasinya dari kampus. Akreditasi program studi saya A,” ujar Hanung.

Demikian juga ketika mau daftar ke instansi pemerintah lainnya. Ada yang mewajibkan untuk melampirkan fotokopi dari laman di BAN-PT sebagai bukti program studi pelamar terakrediatasi. Ternyata, di laman BAN-PT yang jadi rujukan instansi pemerintah lainnya terlambat memasukkan data terbaru.

“Program studi saya terkareditasi dengan status kadaluarsa. Itu kan karena keterlambatan memperbarui data. Hal itu sangat merugikan mahasiwa yang mau melamar pekerjaan,” ujar Hanung.

===============================================================

BPM versus SOA WHY BPM? WHY SOA?


SOA FAQ

Q: How are SOA and BPM related to each other?

Service-oriented architecture (SOA) and business process management (BPM) share common goal —increased enterprise agility.  BPM creates a deep understanding of processes that, in turn, provide an important dimension for understanding what parts of the application portfolio should be engineered into SOA services.

Combining SOA and BPM projects results in increased benefits, which are achieved more quickly than when either is initiated alone.  Business process semantics can be implemented by combining granular technical services into composite services. The sequencing of business tasks or activities creates context for the work. As the business semantics change, or the process sequence changes, services can be recombined, re-sequenced or even substituted to produce realignment with the new context of process or work.  BPM methods highlight common, shared requirements for business services and, can help SOA projects importance as contributing to improved business performance and innovation by addressing constantly changing business needs. Similarly, for BPM projects SOA should be promoted as the technological enablement of BPM.

Q: What is Service Orientation?

Service orientation is a means for integrating across diverse systems. Each IT resource, whether an application, system or trading partner, can be described and accessed as a service. These capabilities are available through service interfaces.

Service orientation uses standards based protocols and conventional interfaces—usually Web services—to facilitate access to business logic and information among diverse services. Specifically, SOA allows the underlying service capabilities and interfaces to be composed into processes. Each process is itself a service, one that now offers up a new, aggregated capability. Because each new process is exposed through a standardized interface, the underlying implementation of the individual service providers is free to change without impacting how the service is consumed.

Q: What is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)?

SOA is a standards-based design approach to creating an integrated IT infrastructure capable of rapidly responding to changing business needs. SOA provides the principles and guidance to transform a company’s existing array of heterogeneous, distributed, complex and inflexible IT resources into integrated, simplified and highly flexible resources that can be changed and composed to more directly support business goals.

Q: What business value does SOA provide?

SOA enables businesses to realize greater agility in their business practices, delivering value across both application and IT infrastructure layers. From an application perspective, SOA enables the development of a new generation of dynamic or composite applications. These applications enable end-users to access information and processes across functional boundaries, and to consume them in a number of convenient ways, including through Web, rich client and mobile presentation layers. From an infrastructure perspective, SOA enables IT to simplify application and system integration, to recombine and reuse application functionality and to organize development work into a unified and consistent design framework. The combined business value of the SOA approach helps to lower IT costs; provides better, more rapidly accessible business information, and enables the organization to identify and respond to workflow problems more efficiently.

Q: What business problems does SOA solve?

SOA enables businesses to develop a new generation of dynamic applications that address a number of top-level business concerns that are central to growth and competitiveness. SOA solutions promote:

  • Stronger connections with customers and suppliers. By making available dynamic applications and business services to external customers and suppliers, not only is richer collaboration possible, but customer and partner satisfaction is increased. SOA unlocks critical supply and demand chain processes—such as outsourcing of specific business tasks—from the constraints of underlying IT architectures, thereby enabling better alignment of processes with organizational strategy.
  • Enhanced business decision making. By aggregating access to business services and information into a set of dynamic, composite business applications, decision makers gain more accurate and more comprehensive information, and gain the flexibility to access that information in the form and presentation factor (Web, rich client, mobile device) that meets their needs.
  • Greater employee productivity. By providing streamlined access to systems and information and enabling business process improvement, businesses can drive greater employee productivity. Employees can focus their energies on addressing the important, value-added processes and on collaborative, semi-structured activities, rather than having to conform to the limitations and restrictions of the underlying IT systems.

Q: Will SOA enable alignment of business and IT?

SOA by itself is not sufficient to guarantee alignment of business and IT. In fact, many organizations that have attempted to roll out SOA infrastructure through a top-down approach have found that that by the time the infrastructure was delivered, it was out of sync with the needs of the business. In contrast, those customers that have driven successful alignment have started with a clear understanding of their business vision, have well-defined business initiatives and outcomes, and have chosen to incrementally deliver those “slices” of their SOA infrastructure that deliver upon these objectives. Microsoft has long advocated this approach—what we call our “real world” approach to leveraging service oriented architectures. This real world approach is focused on rapid time-to-value, and on delivering business results through iterative, incremental steps that are more closely aligned with changing business conditions. This helps enable a much tighter degree of alignment between business and IT.

Q: Is SOA a product?

No. SOA is not a product, but an architecture approach and set of patterns for implementing agile, loosely coupled dynamic applications.

There are numerous misconceptions about what SOA is—that it is a product that can be purchased (it is not; it is a design philosophy that informs how the solution should be built); that the goal is to build a SOA (it is not; SOA is a means to an end); or that SOA requires a complete technological and business process overhaul (it doesn’t; SOA solutions should be incremental and built on current investments).

SOA is also often equated with Web services, and the terms used interchangeably. While it is true that SOA is made easier and more pervasive through the broad adoption of Web services–based standards and protocols, the two are distinct. SOA is an approach to designing systems—in effect, the architectural drawings or blueprint—that directs how IT resources will be integrated and which services will be exposed for use. In contrast, Web services is an implementation methodology that uses specific standards and language protocols to execute on a SOA solution.

Q: Why use SOA?

Complex, distributed IT resources are a concern for businesses. Too frequently, the existing IT portfolio does not adequately meet specific business needs, is costly to manage and maintain and is inflexible in the face of business growth and change. The problem for IT departments is typically not insufficient functionality; rather, it is that critical business systems such as customer relationship management (CRM) and enterprise resource planning (ERP) operate in isolation from other critical business systems—despite the fact that business processes often span multiple applications.

To obtain an end-to-end view of a complex business process necessitates integration of information and process silos. In the past, this has been accomplished either though time-consuming manual interventions, or through hard-coded solutions that are difficult to maintain. The solution, however, is not to rip and replace systems or applications, nor to completely renovate them, but rather to find a way to leverage existing IT investments so that overall organizational goals are effectively supported.

Service orientation helps to accomplish these goals by making systems more responsive to business needs, simpler to develop, and easier to maintain and manage. Service orientation modularizes IT resources, creating loosely coupled business processes that integrate information across business systems. Implementing a solution architecture based upon service orientation helps organizations plan ahead for change, rather than responding reactively.

Q: Who does SOA?

Strictly speaking, SOA is done by developers and solution architects. However, stakeholders in a service-oriented solution span a range of roles, and it is critical that their interests not only be taken into account but that they actively drive the design of the SOA solution.

  • Starting with those interests, the business analyst is concerned with bringing IT investments more in line with the business strategy. For the developer, this means that the SOA solution must map the sources of business information—systems, staff, trading partners—into a unified and comprehensive view such that the business analyst has greater insight into the costs and benefits of various investments.
  • The chief technology officer (CTO) of the organization will work with developers to ensure that when designing a solution to meet the needs of the business analyst, the integrity of existing IT systems and applications resources are preserved, even as new capabilities are developed.
  • And the IT manager, concerned with effectively integrating distributed systems such that management is simplified, will work with the developer to ensure that these goals are also met.

Ultimately, the developers and solution architects are concerned with creating dynamic collaborative applications that meet the goals of the various stakeholders. The service orientation approach enables them to do so in a way that meets the needs of the organization as a whole.

Q: How long has Microsoft been using Service Orientation? What is the WS-* architecture?

A reflection of its commitment to developing the standards, guidance, tools and technologies needed for developing cross-platform integration solutions, Microsoft has been using service orientation across its products since 1999, when the Web services model was announced and a wave of innovation began that fundamentally changed the application architecture landscape. Beginning with version 1.0 of the .NET Framework, the Microsoft investments in tools, together with platform support for Web services, have helped make Service Orientation mainstream and practical.

Working with other vendors such as IBM and BEA, we invested in authoring a set of specifications referred to collectively as the WS-* architecture. Shortly thereafter, in order to promote interoperability across platforms, operating systems and programming languages, Microsoft worked with IBM to develop the Web Services Interoperability Organization (WS-I). Since it was created, WS-I has grown to roughly 150 member companies and has created Web services that address areas such as interoperability, security and the reliability of messaging.

Q: What is the Microsoft SOA solution approach?

Microsoft SOA solutions help organizations access existing IT resources, assemble them into larger business processes, and make the outputs available to users in order to run their organization more effectively. This “real world” approach lets organizations begin with a focused understanding of the business problem and realize rapid success.

From a more technical standpoint, the Microsoft approach can be summarized as a three-step approach: expose, compose and consume.

1. In the expose phase, existing IT resources (such as legacy systems and line of business applications) are made available as services which can be communicated with through standardized messaging formats. The most common suite of implementation technologies is the standards-based Web services. For existing technology assets that cannot natively speak Web service protocols, interoperability is attained through the use of adapters. As the developer moves forward in deliberations about which services to expose, such decisions must be driven by clearly defined and prioritized business needs.

2. Once individual services are exposed, they must be pulled together or composed into larger business processes or workflows. The goal of the compose phase is to enable greater business flexibility and agility by allowing processes to be added or changed without being constrained by the underlying IT systems and applications.

3. In the final step of constructing an SOA solution, the dynamic (or composite) applications that consume the underlying services and processes are developed. These applications—based on Web technologies (such as portals or AJAX), rich clients, Office business applications, or mobile devices—are what drive the productivity of the end-user.

It is important to recognize that all three steps are essential parts of every incremental SOA project. Without all three elements—including the delivery of the dynamic application—the business will not realize any return on the investment.

Q: Will an SOA solution require a complete overhaul of technologies and business processes?

No. The most effective approach to SOA is to build on existing investments, including legacy applications, and to take an incremental approach to integrating across diverse systems to provide specific business benefits. And because the underlying applications are accessed through an interface, the IT assets are insulated from direct change.

Q: Isn’t implementing an SOA solution a costly and complex proposition?

While some SOA-based solutions require a multiplicity of products to implement, increasing cost and complexity, Microsoft solutions are greatly simplified since core service orientation capabilities are built right into the Windows platform as part of the .NET framework. These core capabilities are complemented with an integrated set of development and management tools, as well as server-based solutions for composing and integrating dynamic, composite applications.

Q: Is SOA technology only for large Fortune 1000 enterprises?

No. The Microsoft “real world” SOA approach has been successfully adopted by organizations with very modest IT resources, since it can readily scale down to fit within their existing IT capabilities. At the same time, the Microsoft approach to SOA scales to the largest of global enterprises, supporting mission-critical processes for hundreds of thousands of employees worldwide.

Q: How do I get started with an SOA solution?

The goal of the SOA approach is to deliver a business solution that enables business agility, not to build a SOA. Reuse of services is often stated as a goal of SOA, and while it is true that reuse can be a good by-product of SOA, it is not the end goal itself. The first step in any SOA implementation, therefore, is to identify key business integration challenges or priorities. Development efforts, implemented along principles of SOA, are chosen such that they: 1) best meet the stated business needs, 2) offer the fastest time to value, and 3) best support long-term growth of the business.

Q: What are common SOA pitfalls?

One of the most common pitfalls is to view SOA as an end, rather than a means to an end. Developers who focus on building an SOA solution rather than solving a specific business problem are more likely to create complex, unmanageable and unnecessary interconnections between IT resources.

Another common pitfall is to try to solve multiple problems at once, rather than solving small pieces of the problem. Taking a top-down approach—starting with major organization-wide infrastructure investments—often fails either to show results in a relevant timeframe or to offer a compelling return on investment.

BPM FAQ’s

Q: What is a “business process”?

Business process is a set of linked steps or activities that taken together result in a specific business outcome, either internal or external to the organization. Documenting business processes involves describing what is done, why it is done, how it is done, who (or what system) does it, as well as how well it is done. Business processes may be structured or unstructured, depending on the extent to which the underlying steps are fixed and therefore automated or changeable.

Q: What is Business Process Management (BPM)?

Business process management (BPM) is a management discipline that combines a process-centric and cross-functional approach to improving how organizations achieve their business goals. Business processes underlie all organizational efforts, and the effectiveness with which they are carried out contributes directly to critical business goals such as customer retention, length of time it takes to fulfill a product order or service, or regulatory compliance. A BPM solution provides the tools that help make these processes explicit, as well as the functionality to help business managers control and change both manual and automated workflows.

Q: What are the origins of BPM?

Business process management has its origins in total quality management and business process reengineering. While it adds to these a technological framework, it is more than just the combination of these disciplines. BPM is an IT enabled management discipline that promotes organizational agility and supports the efforts of people to drive process change and rapid innovation. As such, BPM supports the alignment of IT and business activities both within the organization and with business partners and suppliers.

Q: Who does BPM?

Business process management is inherently a cross-disciplinary exercise involving personnel from all areas of the organization—from the process owners who are responsible for getting the day to day operational work done, to the department heads who are responsible for managing divisional areas, to the CXOs of the organization providing oversight and direction. That said, most organizations appoint or hire a point person to oversee the BPM process. That person, often referred to as a business analyst or process architect, generally comes from the business side of the organization, but has a strong enough understanding of IT to serve as an effective liaison with the IT department.

Business process management is inherently a cross-disciplinary exercise involving personnel from all areas of the organization—from the process owners who are responsible for getting the day to day operational work done, to the department heads who are responsible for managing divisional areas, to the CXOs of the organization providing oversight and direction. That said, most organizations appoint or hire a point person to oversee the BPM process. That person, often referred to as a business analyst or process architect, generally comes from the business side of the organization, but has a strong enough understanding of IT to serve as an effective liaison with the IT department.

Q: What is the BPM lifecycle?

The BPM lifecycle is an interative process with several stages: planning, model and design, develop and deploy, manage and interact, analyze and optimize.

  • Planning. The initial planning stage consists of identifying and prioritizing a short list of candidate BPM projects, identifying key players whose input is critical to project success, and establishing the governance to ensure that the BPM project stays on track throughout all of the iterative stages of the cycle.
  • Model and Design. Modeling business processes that span people and systems within the organization, as well as those that reach across to the business partners in the supply chain, enables you to clearly and explicitly lay out each step in a business process, including the critical touch points across people and disparate systems.
  • Develop and Deploy. Armed with the detailed model of the business process and the underlying business rules, the IT developer maps the business needs onto the underlying technologies that contribute to the complete solution. Using BPM tools to uncouple business rules from their underlying technologies, the IT developer abstracts these rules to a layer independent of the systems and applications, then joins the logical components into a “composite application” that combines the functionality of underlying systems.
  • Manage and Interact. With the BPM solution for a specific business process in place, end users interact with the process as it runs though the various process stages. At the same time, business users can monitor for potentially disruptive events along the various steps of the workflow process, and take appropriate action as required. In the background, IT staff manage the entire automated business process solution to ensure that the running process continues to meet capacity and availability standards.
  • Analyze and Optimize. Information derived from performance metrics is critical in driving the iterative process of optimizing the business practices and policies that support organizational goals. The most effective BPM systems enables IT staff or non-technical business users to optimize business rules in real-time, an iterative process that enables rule change, versioning and simple execution.

Q: Which business processes are good candidates for an initial BPM project?

Look for two things. Those processes that have considerable impact on your organization’s ability to achieve its goals either in the short or long term. And those processes, which if improved, will enable your organization to realize a high return on investment. Look at areas where there are known complaints, whether from customers, trading partners or internal staff. At the root of these complaints are processes that are ineffective and require reworking, streamlining, or better management.

Because organizational buy-in is so critical to the success of business process management, the project that has the greatest support for the BPM process may be the most effective place to start. A successful BPM experience in one area of the organization will help create enthusiasm for subsequent projects in other areas.

Q: What are the benefits of BPM?

The reasons for embarking on a business process management effort are as varied as the organizations that undergo the endeavor, but most organizations are driven by the following benefits:

  • Increased customer retention, gained through better, faster customer sales and services, as well as providing customers better access to resources and information
  • Reduced process time, gained through process optimization and efficiencies
  • Improved regulatory compliance, gained through improved process control, regulation and monitoring
  • Improved efficiencies across organizational boundaries such as departments, branches and trading partners
  • Reuse and create new IT assets, through integration with legacy applications and the creation of new composite applications that help to overcome their limitations
  • Greater personal productivity and satisfaction, resulting from greater insight into processes and improved workflow
  • Reduced risk, reduced waste and more profitable allocation of human resources
  • Increased agility through compression of BPM lifecycle, allowing for more rapid process innovation and response to changing business conditions

Q: What are the challenges associated with BPM?

Successful business process management initiatives require both near and long term planning and goal setting, and the goals and means by which to achieve them must be supported by executives across the organization. Without clear alignment on the goals and commitment to the BPM process, organizational resistance will defeat the initiative.

BPM also requires strong communication both within and across departmental boundaries. A strong business analyst or process architect is key to ensuring that the BPM process remains on track as well as ensuring effective communication throughout the initiative. The individual in this role ensures continuous alignment between business and IT since failure to keep business personnel engaged in the process can too readily result in IT solutions that fail to meet business goals.

Q: How do I get started with BPM?

It is critical that to have a BPM process architect who understands both business requirements and technical solutions. In addition to garnering organizational buy-in and choosing an initial project that targets a weak process directly impacting the customer, as well as one that offers a high return on investment, it is imperative to choose the right business process management solution to support the BPM process.

Q: How do I choose a BPM Solution?

BPM enabling technologies span a broad spectrum of activities, but can be generalized as supporting either activities that are unstructured (such as ad-hoc or collaborative tasks) or activities that are highly structured and often transactional in nature. Unstructured or human-workflow activities are supported by tools that center on the information worker; structured (or straight through processing) activities are supported by traditional IT business applications and integration middleware.

It’s important to look for comprehensive BPM solutions that:

  • support both human-centric and straight through processing activities
  • offer a solution framework rather than simply a point solution (necessitating multiple point solutions)
  • support process standards enabling integration across different platforms and with different line of business applications
  • support integration across business partners
  • provide business users with the ability to define the business rules that make up business processes, without IT programming
  • provide visibility into business processes, enabling real-time monitoring and event management

Q: What are the key differentiators of the Microsoft BPM solution?

The Microsoft business process management solution—a BPM system—is built upon the Microsoft application platform technology stack and spans both structured and unstructured processes. The BPM system provides a comprehensive set of tools, servers, patterns and practices for creating reliable, enterprise-grade BPM solutions.

  • People-Ready Processes. The Microsoft BPM system empowers people to drive success for their businesses. This is in contrast to older business process reengineering type initiatives, which were about automating people out of the process. Because people are a critical part of effective processes, the Microsoft BPM system is built to enable business stakeholders to design, interact with, monitor, and innovate critical business processes.
  • Easy To Use. The Microsoft BPM system uses familiar tools and environments that considerable numbers of end-users are already productive with, such as Office for business users and analysts, and Visual Studio for developers. By building upon this existing experience base, organizations can quickly become productive using the BPM system, and can incrementally deliver new innovation through use of many tools already owned.
  • Breadth of Process Support. Only the Microsoft BPM system addresses the full spectrum of business processes from highly unstructured processes (human and document centric) to highly structured and transactional system processes. Most existing vendors focus on just portions of the spectrum, or have tried gain breadth by cobbling together numerous acquired tools.
  • Integrated Platform for BPM. Microsoft BPM system is built upon a common application platform that enables businesses to realize the strategic business benefits of BPM. This platform provides an integrated set of capabilities around user presentation, process, business analytics, and development tools. The net result is a BPM solution that delivers greater agility and lower TCO than competitive solutions.