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Dr rosa widian : terapi tulang punggung bagi profesional kantoran


back pain Chiropractic ditemukan pada tahun 1895. Dan dengan berdasarkan ilmu pengetahuan yang membuktikan bahwa sistem saraf mengontrol fungsi setiap sel tubuh, organ dan sistem tubuh, maka chiropractor memusatkan perhatian kepada sistem saraf secara menyeluruh. Otak dan saraf tulang belakang (spinal cord) dilindungi oleh tengkorak dan tulang belakang. Sehingga kalau pergerakan salah satu dari sendi tulang belakang berkurang maka akan mengiritasi sistem saraf, iritasi ini akan menyebabkan penurunan suplai neuron ke jaringan dan organ. Hal ini mengakibatkan fungsi jaringan dan organ yang tidak optimal. Dengan contoh otot yang berkembang tidak simetri, otot yang cepat lelah (fatigue). “Penurunan fungsi saraf” ini dinamakan: “Vertebra Subluxation Complex” (Subluksasi adalah dimana sendi tulang yang tidak bergerak dengan normal). Bagaimana kita tahu bahwa sendi tubuh berkurang pergerakannya? – Postur tubuh yang asimetri, seperti pundak atau pinggang yang tidak sama tingginya. – Leher yang kaku/tegang. – Rasa sakit atau rasa kaku pada tubuh. – Sakit pada posisi tertentu atau pada waktu melakukan gerakan tertentu. – Sakit pada pagi hari atau terasa sakit walaupun sudah beristirahat cukup lama. read more at http://sinergisehati.blogspot.com/2009/12/apa-itu-kiropraksi.htmlsaya pun menggunakan jasa terapi oleh Dr. Rosa widian sebagai ahli kiropraksi. jalan ampashit raya no 33 senin rabu jumat jam 9am -11am pagi.

kalo malam 17.00 -21.00
cideng, tomang, dibelakang rumah sakit tarakan.
jakarta indonesia
dan ternyata tulang belakang saya ada yang bengkok dan otot pun ada yang tidak normal. biaya terapi jauh lebih murah dibanding dengan yang ada di klinik di mall mall jakarta
dengan dilakukan terapi akhirnya berasa beda sekali hasil nya pun terlihat dengan berkurang sakit nya.
awal sebelum melakukan terapi, kaki kiri saya lebih pendek dibanding kaki kanan saya dan setelah terapi kedua kaki saya sama panjang.
ENGLISH VERSION

I also use the services of Dr. Rosa widian as a doctor with specialize in back pain. ampashit road Highway No. 33 Monday, Wednesday, Friday 9am-11am in the morning hours. 17:00 to 21:00 at night Cideng, Tomang, behind the hospital Tarakan. jakarta Indonesia and it turns out my spine is crooked and there is was an abnormal muscle. cost of therapy is much cheaper than those inclinics in shopping malls jakarta with do therapy produce very different effects. its outcomes wereseen with reduced its pain. before beginning therapy, my left leg is shorter than my right footand after therapy my legs the same length.

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Inilah Kampus Swasta Termahal di Indonesia


akankah dengan biaya yang dibayarkan sesuai dengan kualitas nya?
sedangkan di dunia kerja masi di dominasi lulusan PTN.
Selain itu belum jelas nya akreditasi pemerintah sehingga merugikan PTS dan membingungkan orang tua murid yang akan menyekolahkan anak mareka.

Inilah Kampus Swasta Termahal di Indonesia

Margaret Puspitarini
Sabtu, 30 Juli 2011 15:10 wib

Ilustrasi : Corbis

Ilustrasi : Corbis

JAKARTA – Biaya kuliah menjadi pertimbangan utama bagi orangtua ketika memasukkan anak mereka ke perguruan tinggi. Tentu saja biaya kuliah harus sesuai dengan kantong orangtua.

Sebuah blog menuliskan, delapan perguruan tinggi swasta dengan biaya perkuliahan paling mahal. Kategori mahal terbagi menjadi tiga, yakni sangat mahal dengan kisaran minimal Rp100 juta atau lebih, cukup mahal (Rp80 juta-Rp100 juta), dan relatif mahal dengan rentang biaya terlalu jauh, yakni Rp50 juta-Rp100 juta.

Pemilihan kedelapan kampus swasta ini berdasarkan beberapa kriteria penilaian, yaitu asumsi total biaya selama 8-10 semester; merupakan program reguler, bukan kelas internasional; bukan biaya kuliah untuk program studi kedokteran, kedokteran gigi, maupun medis; hanya murni biaya pendidikan, belum termasuk sumbangan sukarela; serta total biaya terbagi menjadi dua, yaitu minimal dan maksimal. Disebut termahal karena diurutkan dari total biaya minimal ke maksimal.

Kategori sangat mahal

1. President University
Kampus yang berada di daerah Cikarang, Jawa Barat, ini merupakan kampus internasional kedua di Indonesia. Berdiri pada 2001, kampus ini mematok biaya perkuliahan sebesar Rp25 juta per semester. Jika dihitung, untuk mencapai gelar S-1, dibutuhkan biaya Rp250 juta.

2. Swiss German University (SGU)
Berdiri pada 2000 lalu, SGU merupakan kampus bernuansa internasional pertama di Indonesia. Dengan suasana kompleks yang nyaman dan asri, kampus yang berlokasi di Bumi Serpong Damai (BSD) Tangerang, Banten, ini menetapkan biaya kuliah mulai dari Rp24 juta-Rp28 juta per semester. Jadi, untuk memperoleh gelar S-1, orangtua harus mengeluarkan dana sebesar Rp223 juta-Rp247 juta.

Kehadiran tenaga pengajar asing, mungkin menjadi salah satu alasan kampus ini mematok harga yang cukup mahal.

3. Universitas Pelita Harapan (UPH)

Kampus yang berdiri sejak 1996 ini memiliki biaya rata-rata kuliah sebesar Rp9 juta-Rp15 juta tiap semester. Sementara, biaya yang harus dikeluarkan hingga meraih titel sarjana adalah sebesar Rp130 juta-Rp200 juta.

Kampus yang menjadi tempat kuliah beberapa selebriti seperti si kembar Marcel dan Mischa Chandrawinata, serta Marshanda ini memberikan fasilitas sesuai dengan biaya perkuliahan. Mulai dari pusat olahraga seperti kolam renang, lintasan atletik, hingga pusat perbelanjaan ada di kampus yang berlokasi di Lippo Karawaci ini.

Kategori cukup mahal

4. Universitas Ciputra (UC)

Meski terbilang baru berdiri, yakni pada 2006 lalu, universitas yang didirikan oleh Ir. Ciputra ini mematok harga yang cukup mahal untuk biaya perkuliahan terutama untuk kota seukuran Surabaya. Rata-rata biaya kuliah Rp9 juta-Rp16 juta. Sehingga untuk perkuliahan selama 8-10 semester, dibutuhkan Rp83 juta-Rp160 juta.

5. Universitas Trisakti (Usakti)
Sejak berdiri 46 tahun lalu hingga 1998, Usakti menjadi kampus swasta favorit bagi calon mahasiswa baru. Namun, setelah 1998 dengan bermunculan kampus baru yang cukup banyak, peminat Usakti menjadi menurun.

Kampus tempat Nycta Gina alias Jeng Kelin berkuliah ini memiliki biaya kuliah rata-rata Rp9 juta-Rp12 juta tiap semester. Sehingga untuk meraih S-1, harus mengeluarkan biaya sebesar Rp90 juta-Rp120 juta.

Kategori relatif mahal

6. Universitas Tarumanegara (Untar)
Kampus yang merupakan tetangga Usakti di Grogol, Jakarta Barat juga mematok biaya kuliah yang cukup mahal. Pasalnya, untuk biaya perkuliahan tiap semester, harus merogoh kocek sebesar Rp7 juta-Rp10 juta. Maka, untuk meraih gelar sarjana di kampus yang juga dimiliki oleh Ciputra, diperlukan biaya sebesar Rp65 juta-Rp120 juta.

7. Universitas Bina Nusantara (Binus)
Kampus yang terkenal dengan jurusan Teknologi Informasi ini mematok biaya kuliah sebesar Rp6 juta-Rp9 juta tiap semester. Biaya yang harus dikeluarkan selama 8-10 semester yakni Rp61 juta-Rp107 juta.

8. Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya (UAJ)
Kampus yang berlokasi di Semanggi, Jakarta Selatan ini memiliki biaya kuliah yang relatif mahal. Sebab, teradapat program studi dengan biaya kuliah cukup murah, namun ada pula beberapa program studi dengan biaya yang cukup mahal.

Kampus yang menjadi favorit dalam jurusan psikologi ini memiliki rata-rata biaya kuliah Rp3 juta-Rp10 juta per semester. Sehingga, untuk meraih gelar sarjana pada kampus dengan jaket almamater berwarna oranye ini dibutuhkan Rp25 juta-Rp110 juta.(rhs)

rencana pemerintah REDENOMINASI RUPIAH atau pemotongan rupiah


lagi tidur..ditelpon sama nyokap karena isu redenominasi rupiah

Uda pernah terjadi pada tahun 1950 di indo dan beberapa negara sukses menjaga moneter dan stabilitas ekonomi. Dengan istilah gunting rupiah.

Sebagai contoh: biasa pemotongan duit terjadi berupa penghilangan 3 angka noll “0”

kalo misalnya punya duit 100.000 maka akan menjadi 100.
becarefull but ini konsep nya mau di sama in kaya amerika

jadi nanti nya beli makan mie ayam 10.000 maka akan jadi cuma 10.ibarat kaya orang bule beli hotdog di amerika yang Cuma 3 dollar

1.pemerintah harus persiapkan uang yang banyak untuk sosialisasi rencana ini.karena jika tidak di persiapkan dengan matang maka akan menimbulkan keresahan di masyarakat dan menimbulkan persepsi yang bisa menjadikan kerusuhan
2. perbankan mesti mengupdate seluruh IT di bank untuk mengubah digit. karena butuh waktu yang lama. Dan perlu nya studi banding yang matang.
3. Turkey terbilang sukses melakukan ini dalam waktu kurun 10 taun.
4.kalo takut, beli lah dollar dan bikin paspor.
5.pemerintah harus mencetak seluruh uang baru kaya Rp 1, 2 ,5, 10, 100,1000
6. tidak akan di terapkan dalam waktu yang singkat

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http://bisniskeuangan.kompas.com/read/2010/08/02/09320316/Nilai.Pecahan.Rupiah.Bakal.Dipangkas-7

REDENOMINASI RUPIAH

Nilai Pecahan Rupiah Bakal Dipangkas?

Senin, 2 Agustus 2010 | 09:32 WIB

KOMPAS.com/ERLANGGA DJUMENA

JAKARTA, KOMPAS.com — Isu pemotongan nilai pecahan rupiah sebenarnya sudah banyak beredar, terutama sejak nilai tukar rupiah melorot 4-5 kali lipat terhadap dollar Amerika Serikat. Beberapa kali juga pemerintah membantah isu pemotongan rupiah yang sempat membuat trauma banyak orang Indonesia pada tahun 1950 dengan menggunting uang menjadi setengahnya.

Tapi kini Bank Indonesia benar-benar sudah berancang akan melakukan pemotongan atau istilah kerennya redenominasi rupiah. Tapi dalam redenominasi nilai tukar yang terjadi hanya pemotongan nilai pecahan mata uang untuk menjadi lebih kecil tanpa mengubah nilai tukarnya.

Gubernur BI terpilih Darmin Nasution mengatakan, saat ini BI tengah menggodok wacana mengenai redenominasi nilai tukar rupiah. “BI sedang menyiapkan sejumlah hal agar nilai Rp 1 itu lebih berarti,” ujar Darmin, Sabtu (31/7/2010).

Ia menambahkan, rencana redenominasi nilai tukar ini nantinya akan dibahas terlebih dahulu dengan pemerintah dan DPR. “Harus melalui Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat baru nanti kita sosialisasikan,” jelasnya.

Dalam redenominasi, akan ada pemotongan angka nol pada nilai mata uang. Pemotongan nol biasanya tiga buah di belakang. Misalnya pecahan Rp 100.000 dipangkas 3 angka nolnya akan menjadi Rp 100.

BI sedang menyiapkan sejumlah hal agar nilai Rp 1 itu lebih berarti

Tapi Darmin mengatakan belum bisa memutuskan berapa jumlah angka nol yang akan dipotong. “Belum bisa diputuskan sekarang berapa angka nol yang akan dikurangi, apakah tiga atau empat. Namun, hasil pembahasan akan diusahakan disampaikan ke pemerintah tahun ini,” janji mantan Dirjen pajak ini.

Sebenarnya, proses untuk melakukan redenominasi nilai tukar membutuhkan waktu sekitar empat hingga lima tahun.

Menurut Deputi Gubernur BI Budi Rochadi, setidaknya ada tiga persyaratan yang harus dipenuhi jika ingin melakukan penyederhanaan satuan nilai tukar.Tiga persyaratan itu adalah kondisi ekonomi yang stabil, inflasi yang terjaga rendah, dan adanya jaminan stabilitas harga.

Selain itu, untuk melakukan redenominasi nilai tukar juga dibutuhkan penarikan uang yang beredar di masyarakat secara bertahap. “Hal yang paling sulit dilakukan dengan cepat dan mudah adalah sosialisai kepada seluruh masyarakat Indonesia yang mencapai ratusan juta jiwa,” jelasnya. (Herlina Kartika, Sofyan Nur Hidayat/Kontan)

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http://lipsus.kompas.com/topikpilihan/read/2010/08/02/1135279/Bankir.Redenominasi.Butuh.Biaya.Tinggi

REDENOMINASI RUPIAH

Bankir: Redenominasi Butuh Biaya Tinggi

JAKARTA, KOMPAS.com – Para bankir menilai, bank sentral harus berhati-hati melakukan redenominasi mata uang rupiah. Pasalnya, kebijakan ini bakal memiliki efek yang sangat besar bagi industri perbankan.

Komisaris Independen Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) Aviliani mengatakan, rencana redenominasi rupiah bakal memakan biaya tinggi. Perbankan harus melakukan investasi lagi di bidang teknologi dan informasi (TI). “TI tentu perlu penyesuaian terhadap berapa banyak angka nol uang tersebut,” ujarnya, Minggu (1/8/2010).

Ia juga memperkirakan, BI juga harus mengeluarkan dana yang tidak sedikit untuk mengganti dan mencetak uang baru. “Pencetakan uang selalu menguras anggaran BI,” jelas Aviliani.

Ia menyarankan, redenominasi dilakukan ketika Indonesia menerapkan Masyarakat Ekonomi ASEAN. Saat itu, Indonesia bisa menyamakan nilai rupiah dengan mata uang negara-negara ASEAN. “Saat ini belum tepat karena krisis ekonomi di Eropa belum benar-benar berlalu dan sektor riil di Indonesia belum bergerak,” tandas Aviliani

Direktur Utama Bank BNI Gatot Suwondo sependapat dengan Aviliani. “Untuk penerapan TI dan mematangkannya butuh waktu yang tidak sebentar,” ujar Gatot.

Menurut dia, redenominasi rupiah harus dibarengi pembangunan persepsi masyarakat terhadap kebijakan tersebut. “Jangan sampai persepsi yang timbul adalah pemotongan nilai mata uang, yang membuat masyarakat menarik dana mereka dari bank dan melakukan investasi ke luar negeri,” tambahnya. (Roy Franedya/Kontan)

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http://lipsus.kompas.com/topikpilihan/read/2010/08/02/1233248/BI.Sudah.Studi.Banding.soal.Redenominasi

BI Sudah Studi Banding soal Redenominasi

JAKARTA, KOMPAS.com — Akhir pekan lalu, Pjs Gubernur Bank Indonesia, Darmin Nasution, yang baru saja terpilih menjadi Gubernur BI terpilih melempar isu panas tentang rencana bank sentral melakukan langkah redenominasi rupiah.

Sejatinya, isu redenominasi rupiah sudah pernah dilontarkan oleh bank sentral sejak awal Mei 2010. Ketika itu, BI menjelaskan, posisi otoritas moneter terkait rencana redenominasi baru sebatas mempelajari kemungkinan penerapannya di Indonesia. Untuk mengukur keseriusan rencana tersebut, hal itu bisa dibaca dari langkah-langkah yang sudah dilakukan oleh BI sejauh ini. Tercatat, mereka telah melakukan studi banding ke negara-negara yang telah melakukan langkah redenominasi, seperti Turki dan Romania.

Dari hasil studi banding ke negara-negara tersebut, BI mencatat beberapa hal yang perlu disiapkan sebelum langkah redenominasi diterapkan. Syarat pertama adalah kesiapan masyarakat. “Pengalaman Turki, ongkos terbesar adalah untuk sosialisasi pada masyarakat tentang langkah pemotongan nilai uang itu,” cerita Kepala Biro Humas BI Difi A Johansyah, ketika itu.

Turki membutuhkan waktu sekitar 10 tahun sebelum benar-benar merealisasikan kebijakan redenominasi. Itu pun relatif berhasil dilakukan karena Negeri Kemal Attaturk tersebut berhasil menerapkan disiplin fiskal yang cukup ketat. Turki melakukan langkah redenominasi dengan memotong enam digit nilai mata uangnya sehingga 1.000.000 menjadi sama dengan 1.
Adapun Romania memotong empat digit.

Jika hal tersebut dilaksanakan di Indonesia yang memiliki wilayah geografis amat luas dan jumlah penduduk terpadat keempat di dunia, maka biaya sosialisasi dipastikan akan sangat besar.(Ruisa Khoiriyah/Kontan)

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http://lipsus.kompas.com/topikpilihan/read/2010/08/02/14422313/Syarat.Utama.Pemangkasan.Nilai.Pecahan.Mata.Uang

REDENOMINASI RUPIAH

Syarat Utama Pemangkasan Nilai Pecahan Mata Uang

JAKARTA, KOMPAS.com — Bank Indonesia menggulirkan rencana pengkajian penerapan redenominasi rupiah. Wacana ini mengundang berbagai macam reaksi di masyarakat.

Redenominasi nilai tukar yang terjadi hanya pemotongan nilai pecahan mata uang untuk menjadi lebih kecil tanpa mengubah nilai tukarnya. Dalam redenominasi, akan ada pemotongan angka nol pada nilai mata uang. Pemotongan nol biasanya tiga buah di belakang. Misalnya pecahan Rp 100.000 dipangkas 3 angka nolnya akan menjadi Rp 100

Beberapa pengamat ekonomi menilai wacana ini kontraproduktif terhadap stabilitas perekonomian mengingat isunya cukup sensitif bila tanpa disertai sosialisasi yang jelas. Adapun kalangan pelaku industri keuangan lebih menyoroti besarnya ongkos yang dibutuhkan jika benar langkah redenominasi diberlakukan.

Jauh sebelum Gubernur BI terpilih Darmin Nasution melontarkan wacana tersebut akhir pekan lalu, otoritas moneter sejatinya sudah pernah melempar isu redenominasi ke publik. Dalam sebuah diskusi dengan media yang berlangsung awal Mei lalu, Kepala Biro Riset Ekonomi BI Iskandar Simorangkir memaparkan, ada beberapa persyaratan utama bagi suatu negara yang harus dipenuhi sebelum mengambil langkah redenominasi.

“Pertama, adalah ekspektasi inflasi di negara tersebut harus berada di kisaran rendah dan pergerakannya stabil,” ujarnya.

Kedua, stabilitas perekonomian terjaga dan ada jaminan terhadap stabilitas harga. Ketiga, adalah kesiapan masyarakat. Bila menilik beberapa persyaratan tersebut, BI menilai kondisi Indonesia sebenarnya cukup siap untuk diberlakukan kebijakan redenominasi. “Inflasi di sini sudah rendah, stabilitas harga juga cukup terjamin. Menurut saya, kondisi Indonesia sebenarnya cukup siap. Cuma mungkin masyarakatnya yang perlu persiapan lebih,” imbuh Iskandar.

Menilik pengalaman negara-negara yang telah melakukan redenominasi, waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk memuluskan kebijakan tersebut bisa memakan rentang lama. Turki misalnya, butuh waktu hingga 10 tahun. Untuk Indonesia, BI belum memperkirakan waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk kebijakan ini agar penerimaan masyarakat bisa positif.

Terlebih, menginjak semester kedua tahun 2010, ekspektasi inflasi malah kian menanjak naik. Boleh jadi penilaian BI atas kesiapan Indonesia untuk pemberlakuan redenominasi menjadi berubah.

Jika segala persyaratan dinilai sudah cukup baik, BI pun tidak bisa memutuskan kebijakan ini sendiri. Eksekusi kebijakan redenominasi membutuhkan keputusan bersama dengan pemerintah maupun DPR. (Ruisa Khoiriyah/Kontan)

http://lipsus.kompas.com/topikpilihan/read/2010/08/02/13404474/Redenominasi.Belum.Akan.Diterapkan


DALAM WAKTU DEKAT

Redenominasi Belum Akan Diterapkan

Senin, 2 Agustus 2010 | 13:40 WIB

JAKARTA, KOMPAS.com – Kepala Biro Humas BI Difi A. Johansyah menegaskan, wacana redenominasi hingga saat ini masih merupakan kajian riset di BI saja.

“Belum akan diterapkan dalam waktu dekat karena ini butuh persiapan lama dan matang,” ujarnya, Senin (2/8/2010)

Pasalnya, BI memandang, redenominasi membutuhkan waktu dan persiapan yang lama dan matang, termasuk sosialisasinya. Itu pun juga, harus betul-betul berdasarkan kebutuhan masyarakat dan ekonomi. Dengan luas wilayan geografi yang luas sertai jumlah penduduk yang terpadat keempat di dunia, bisa dipastikan biaya sosialisasinya akan sangat besar.

Difi menambahkan, di banyak negara yang sukses melakukan redenominasi, kebijakan itu dilakukan hanya ketika inflasi dan ekspektasi inflasi stabil dan rendah.(Ruisa Khoiriyah/Kontan)

Tips Menjawab 18 Pertanyaan Tersulit Wawancara Kerja


Tips Menjawab 18 Pertanyaan Tersulit Wawancara Kerja

Sudah bukan rahasia lagi kalau interview atau wawancara pekerjaan merupakan hal paling kritikal untuk mendapatkan pekerjaan yang Anda inginkan. Karena itu, tentu Anda tahu bahwa Anda harus mempersiapkan diri Anda seprima mungkin, baik fisik dan mental.

Kali ini kami akan memberi Anda tips untuk menghadapi delapan belas pertanyaan yang paling umum dan tersulit dalam sebuah wawancara pekerjaan.

1. Beritahukan kami tentang diri Anda?

Biasanya ini merupakan pertanyaan pembuka, karena itu jangan menghabiskan terlalu banyak waktu untuk menjawabnya. Berikan jawaban yang menjawab empat subjek: tahun-tahun terakhir, pendidikan, sejarah kerja, dan pengalaman karir terakhir.

2. Apa yang Anda ketahui tentang kami?

Ketika pertanyaan ini dikeluarkan, anda diharapkan mampu mendiskusikan produk atau pelayanan, pendapatan, reputasi, pandangan masyarakat, trget, permasalahan, gaya managemen, orang-orang di dalamnya, sejarah, dan filosofi perusahaan. Berikan jawaban yang memberitahu pewawancara bahwa Anda meluangkan waktu mencari tahu tentang perusahaan tersebut, namun jangan beraksi seperti Anda tahu segalanya tentang perusahaan tersebut, tunjukan keinginan mempelajari lebih banyak tentang perusahaan tersebut, dan jangan memberikan jawaban negatif seperti “Saya tahu perusahaan anda mengalami problema-problema, itu alasan saya disini”. Tekankan keunggulan perusahaan dan minat Anda terhadap hal tersebut.

3. Apa yang dapat Anda berikan pada kami (yang orang lain tidak bisa beri)?

Sebutkan prestasi-prestasi dan jenjang karir yang Anda telah capai. Sebutkan kemampuan dan hal-hal yang menarik perhatian Anda, gabungkan dengan sejarah Anda mencapai hal-hal itu. Sebutkan kemampuan Anda menentukan prioritas, mengidentifikasi masalah, dan

4. Apa yang paling menarik menurut Anda dari pekerjaan ini? Dan apa yang paling tidak menarik?

Sebutkan tiga sampai empat faktor menarik dari pekerjaan yang anda hendak ambil dan satu hal kecil sebagai faktor yang kurang menarik.

5. Mengapa kami harus merekrut Anda?

Pertanyaan ini saam seperti pertanyaan nomor empat, sebutkan saja kemampuan-kemampuan Anda yang mampu mendukung perusahaan tersebut.

6. Apa yang Anda cari di dalam sebuah pekerjaan?

Berikan jawaban yang berkisar pada oportunitas di dalam organisasi. Beritahukan pewawancara kalau Anda ingin memberikan kontribusi dan dikenali. Hindari jawaban yang mempersoalkan kestabilan keuangan pribadi.

7. Menurut Anda, apa definisi dari posisi yang Anda inginkan?

Berikan jawaban yang singkat dan berkisar tentang tugas dan kewajiban. Pastikan Anda mengerti posisi tersebut sebelum Anda hendak menjawab.

8. Berapa lama waktu yang Anda butuhkan untuk memberikan kontribusi berarti bagi kami?

Beri jawaban yang realistik. Beritahukan pewawancara bahwa walaupun Anda akan berusaha mengatasi segala harapan dan tantangan dari hari pertama, Anda membutuhkan sekitar enam bulan untuk benar-benar mengerti organisasi perusahaan dan kebutuhannya.

9. Berapa lama Anda akan bersama kami?

Beritahukan pewawancara bahwa Anda tertarik berkarir bersama perusahaan tersebut namun Anda ingin tetap tertantang untuk mencapai target bersama.

10. Dari resume Anda, kami rasa Anda terlalu berpengalaman untuk posisi ini. Bagaimana pendapat Anda?

Ini pertanyaan jebakan. Anda diharapkan untuk tetap rendah hati namun percaya diri dengan kemampuan Anda. Cara terbaik menanganinya adalah menjawab bahwa Anda butuh mengenal perusahaan lebih jauh sebelum dapat dengan efisien bekerja di tingkat yang lebih tinggi.

11. Kenapa Anda meninggalkan pekerjaan Anda yang sebelumnya?

Anda sebaiknya menjawab pertanyaan ini dengan jujur namun singkat dan jelas termasuk jika hal tersebut karena Anda dipecat. Namun yang perlu diperhatikan, Anda sebaiknya jangan menyebutkan konflik pribadi. Perlu Anda perhitungkan bahwa pewawancara mungkin akan bertanya banyak soal masalah ini, jangan sampai Anda terbawa emosi.

12. Apa yang Anda rasakan ketika harus meninggalkan pekerjaan Anda?

Beritahu pewawancara bahwa Anda merasa khawatir namun jangan terkesan panik. Katakan bahwa Anda siap menerima segala resiko demi mendapatkan pekerjaan yang cocok untuk Anda. Jangan menunjukan bahwa Anda lebih mementingkan kestabilan keuangan.

13. Pada pekerjaan Anda sebelumnya, apa yang berkenan dengan Anda? Dan apa yang tidak berkenan?

Berhati-hatilah dalam menjawab pertanyaan ini dan kemukakan hal-hal positif. Deskripsikan lebih banyak hal yang Anda sukai daripada yang Anda tidak sukai. Jangan menyebutkan masalah pribadi. Jika Anda membuat pekerjaan sebelumnya terkesan buruk, pewawancara akan bertanya-tanya mengapa Anda berada disana. Hal ini jelas mengurangi profesionalisme Anda.

14. Apa pendapat Anda tentang bos Anda sebelumnya?

Ini juga pertanyaan yang harus Anda jawab dengan hati-hati. Sebisa mungkin jawablah pertanyaan ini dengan positif karena calon bos Anda akan merasa Anda akan membicarakan hal-hal buruk tentang dia seperti apa yang telah Anda lakukan terhadap bos yang terdahulu.

15. Mengapa Anda tidak mendapatkan pekerjaan yang lebih baik di usia Anda?

Lagi-lagi ini bisa menjadi pertanyaan jebakan. Beritahukan pewawancara bahwa inilah alasan Anda mencari lowongan pekerjaan di perusahaan tersebut. Jangan bersikap defensif.

16. Berapa gaji yang Anda minta?

Ini pertanyaan yang mengiurkan, namun pastikan Anda menyebutkan angka kisaran yang Anda yakin merupakan gaji yang pantas atau bertanya pada pewawancara berapa kisaran pada pekerjaan sejenis. Jika Anda diberi pertanyaan ini dari awal wawancara, sebaiknya Anda mengelaknya dengan mengatakan Anda ingin tahu seberapa banyak tanggung jawab yang akan Anda pegang di perusahaan tersebut. Tekankan bahwa Anda lebih mementingkan pekerjaannya namun jangan menjual standar Anda.

17. Apa target jangka panjang Anda?

Untuk menjawab pertanyaan ini, Anda lagi-lagi diharuskan meneliti perusahaan tersebut dan mengetahui rencana dan/atau target mereka lalu memberikan jawaban yang singkron dengan milik perusahaan.

18. Seberapa sukses yang Anda rasa telah capai?

Berikan jawaban yang positif dan percaya diri, namun jangan memberikan jawaban yang berlebih. Jangan membuat pewawancara merasa Anda seorang yang suka membesar-besarkan sesuatu.

coinachance.com receh pun sangat berguna bagi mereka yang sangat membutuhkan untuk menggapai cita2 mereka


Beberapa waktu lalu di salah satu status chatting temen kantor saya di menyerukan “ cpba baca http://coinachance.com/ , nyoba yuuk di kantor ini, ntar gw yang nyediain tempat koinnya dehh “ Saya langsung buka…karena ini adalah kaya blog gitu…yang muncul adalah cerita anak bernama Guntur…artikel nya gak nyambung dengan nama link…

setelah baca semakin kebawa2 dan post2 sebelum nya…saya jadi mengerti isi dari website ini…

Pertama yang mau katakan adalah..ini adalah konsep yang bagus…mirip kaya program orang tua asuh….menyumbang2 gitu…tapi ini untuk anak yang kesulitan keuangan keluarga….tiba2 saya mendapat sebuah renungan… Renungan pertama saya adalah “ pernah kan orang2 care dengan uang receh apalagi 25 perak?”…karena sebuah supermarket bernama “pahlawan” masi menggunakan uang receh 25 perak sampai kadang kalo gak ada uang 100 dan 200 malah di ganti dengan 25 perak…dan saya pernah bertransaksi di supermarket  “pasar HYPER”..nah mereka tidak perna mau menerima kalo customer nya membayar dengan uang 25…pernah saya punya uang 1000 rupiah dari kumpulan 25 perak..dan uda saya seloptip…eh malah di tolak… Dan pernah juga saya mau kasi ke pengamen uang 1000 dari kumpulan 25 perak yang saya seloptip jadi satu…..tahu kah anda apa yang di lakukan pengamen dan pengemis itu??di lempar2 aja..di buang depan mata anda…padahal pengemis / pengamen nya berumur 6 sampai 7 tahun… Dan uang 25 perak itu Cuma diterima di supermarket itu lagi dan bank Indonesia. Sisa nya gak mau menerima…apalagi orang2 yang selalu belanja di supermarket “pahlawan” …apalgi di mall TAM*N ANG**EK di daerah tomang…orang apartemen nya si kaya2 semua…dan semua rata2 belanja di supermarket…nah uang 25 perak pasti banyak…malah kalo bisa saya sarankan ke http://coinachance.com/ untuk menaruh tempat dropping nya di sana…

Renungan kedua adalah “selama ini kasi uang ke pengamen …apakah anda tidak melanggar perda pemerintah?” karena secara tidak langsung anda memperbanyak pengamen danpengemis di Jakarta.apakah anda tidak membayangkan dampak nya..mereka yang di melihat sanak sodara mereka di Jakarta bisa hidup bertahun2…orang2 kampung pun datang ke Jakarta berharap mendapat pekerjaan…kalau tidak mendapat pekerjaan..yah mereka menjadi pengemis….makin banyak lah pengemis di Jakarta ini..bukannya kita tidak respect sama mereka(pengemis dan pengamen) tapi kalo di Jakarta Cuma untuk seperti ini..kenapa mereka tidak membangun kampung mereka membantu pemerintah untuk pembangunan daerah…

Renungan ketiga adalah lanjutan dari renungan kedua “ jika mengamen makin tidak menghasilkan uang yang cukup..maka akan meningkatkan kejahatan di Jakarta ini ….apakah anda sadar yang akan terjadi setelah anda memberikan uang??”..kejahatan bertambah…itulah yang terjadi..tidak perlu jauh2..dulu Cuma ada satu stasiun tv yang ada program mengenai polisi yang menangkap penjahat dan perampokan seperti itu…sekarang?uda banyak..artinya kejahatan sering terjadi dan makin banyak bukan?anda sadar kah?anda sudah tidak aman.. Hidup ini selalu tidak adil. Itu lah yang harus di pegang prinsip nya untuk menghadapi kasus ini..karena jika kita memelihara pengemis dan pengamen..lama2 akan berdampak buruk pada kita sendiri…ibaratnya anda memelihara monster yang waktu kecil nya si tidak berbahaya dan lama2 setelah menjadi dewasa..monster tersebut akan memakan anda…

Renungan ke empat adalah “sadar kah anda tentang ada mafia yang ada dibelakang pengemis itu?? Believe or not ..it happen in Indonesia…contoh nya bisa di lihat aja film “slumdog millionare”…setau saya itu terjadi di Indonesia, china, dan india…kenyataan nya seperti itu…di china missal nya..jika anda jalan2 di sana..dan tiba2 anak anda terpisah dari anda maka sudah kemungkinan kecil untuk ketemu lagi…mereka akan memotong dan membuat anak anda cacat dan nanti disuruh untuk mengemis… Itu adalah scenario dari lama… life is not fair..begitu lah..anda secara tidak langsung membuat mafia tersebut makin kaya…di Indonesia misalnya…saya pernah menonton sebuah tv brita yang mengatakan bahwa anak gadis bapak A hilang dan sudah 3 minggu lebih hilang….di kota A Kan kebetulan di ketemukan oleh kakak nya / relasi nya bapak A di sebuah kereta dari kota B menuju kota C sedang menyapu2 kereta untuk mendapatkan uang..dan uang itu di setorkan ke orang yang menculik…

Renungan ke lima adalah “apakah selama nya materi yang anda kejar?”..uang tidak segalanya…tapi memang “hampir” mutlak uang adalah segala2 nya…apakah uang akan memberikan kebahagian? Apakah uang akan memberikan kasih sayang?

Renungan ke enam adalah “dengan memiliki gaji(tidak memandang berapa pun) …apakah anda tidak pernah sedikit pun terbesit untuk menyumbangkan 100 perak aja .????? “ …100 perak apakah itu masi worth it bagi anda? Apalagi uang 25 perak dan 50 perak…..is it still worth it??? Apalagi setelah saya liat di website nya uang yang terkumpul adalah Rp. 6,396,390,-…pertanyaan saya adalah dari mana uang 90 perak itu??ok let say itu antara 50 perak dan 40 perak….trus memang nya masi ada uang 20 perak?10 perak?

Renungan ke tujuh adalah. ..” sudah berumur berapa anda??? Apakah masi jaman anda menimbun uang receh seperti anak kecil dan memiliki celengan ayam yang di mana suatu saat akan anda pecahkan dan anda tabung? Anda sudah memiliki gaji..dan anda sudah memiliki rekening ..”…kenapa anda tidak menyumbangkan uang receh yang dimana anda tahu yang anda sumbang bisa langsung merasakan efek pemberian dari anda.selain itu orang tersebut pun berjuang untuk menggapai cita2 nya..dan tetep berusaha.sedangkan pengemis setiap hari mengemis..mau sampai kapan????sedangkan Guntur,,dengan mendapatkan dana…dia bisa menyelesaikan pendidikan nya dan setelah mendapat pekerjaan..dia sudah tidak perlu di beri sumbangan dari anda…

Renungan ke delapan adalah “ pernah kan terlintas anda untuk beramal??beramal kepada orang yang dimana orang tersebut tidak selama nya mengharapkan dari anda…..”… Maka dari itu saya sangat mendukung acara http://coinachance.com/ maka dari itu mari temen2 kita beri receh kalian..apalagi receh2 yang di pasaran aja susah untuk dipergunakan seperti 25 perak…

Best regards Steven Tjia

BPM versus SOA WHY BPM? WHY SOA?


SOA FAQ

Q: How are SOA and BPM related to each other?

Service-oriented architecture (SOA) and business process management (BPM) share common goal —increased enterprise agility.  BPM creates a deep understanding of processes that, in turn, provide an important dimension for understanding what parts of the application portfolio should be engineered into SOA services.

Combining SOA and BPM projects results in increased benefits, which are achieved more quickly than when either is initiated alone.  Business process semantics can be implemented by combining granular technical services into composite services. The sequencing of business tasks or activities creates context for the work. As the business semantics change, or the process sequence changes, services can be recombined, re-sequenced or even substituted to produce realignment with the new context of process or work.  BPM methods highlight common, shared requirements for business services and, can help SOA projects importance as contributing to improved business performance and innovation by addressing constantly changing business needs. Similarly, for BPM projects SOA should be promoted as the technological enablement of BPM.

Q: What is Service Orientation?

Service orientation is a means for integrating across diverse systems. Each IT resource, whether an application, system or trading partner, can be described and accessed as a service. These capabilities are available through service interfaces.

Service orientation uses standards based protocols and conventional interfaces—usually Web services—to facilitate access to business logic and information among diverse services. Specifically, SOA allows the underlying service capabilities and interfaces to be composed into processes. Each process is itself a service, one that now offers up a new, aggregated capability. Because each new process is exposed through a standardized interface, the underlying implementation of the individual service providers is free to change without impacting how the service is consumed.

Q: What is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)?

SOA is a standards-based design approach to creating an integrated IT infrastructure capable of rapidly responding to changing business needs. SOA provides the principles and guidance to transform a company’s existing array of heterogeneous, distributed, complex and inflexible IT resources into integrated, simplified and highly flexible resources that can be changed and composed to more directly support business goals.

Q: What business value does SOA provide?

SOA enables businesses to realize greater agility in their business practices, delivering value across both application and IT infrastructure layers. From an application perspective, SOA enables the development of a new generation of dynamic or composite applications. These applications enable end-users to access information and processes across functional boundaries, and to consume them in a number of convenient ways, including through Web, rich client and mobile presentation layers. From an infrastructure perspective, SOA enables IT to simplify application and system integration, to recombine and reuse application functionality and to organize development work into a unified and consistent design framework. The combined business value of the SOA approach helps to lower IT costs; provides better, more rapidly accessible business information, and enables the organization to identify and respond to workflow problems more efficiently.

Q: What business problems does SOA solve?

SOA enables businesses to develop a new generation of dynamic applications that address a number of top-level business concerns that are central to growth and competitiveness. SOA solutions promote:

  • Stronger connections with customers and suppliers. By making available dynamic applications and business services to external customers and suppliers, not only is richer collaboration possible, but customer and partner satisfaction is increased. SOA unlocks critical supply and demand chain processes—such as outsourcing of specific business tasks—from the constraints of underlying IT architectures, thereby enabling better alignment of processes with organizational strategy.
  • Enhanced business decision making. By aggregating access to business services and information into a set of dynamic, composite business applications, decision makers gain more accurate and more comprehensive information, and gain the flexibility to access that information in the form and presentation factor (Web, rich client, mobile device) that meets their needs.
  • Greater employee productivity. By providing streamlined access to systems and information and enabling business process improvement, businesses can drive greater employee productivity. Employees can focus their energies on addressing the important, value-added processes and on collaborative, semi-structured activities, rather than having to conform to the limitations and restrictions of the underlying IT systems.

Q: Will SOA enable alignment of business and IT?

SOA by itself is not sufficient to guarantee alignment of business and IT. In fact, many organizations that have attempted to roll out SOA infrastructure through a top-down approach have found that that by the time the infrastructure was delivered, it was out of sync with the needs of the business. In contrast, those customers that have driven successful alignment have started with a clear understanding of their business vision, have well-defined business initiatives and outcomes, and have chosen to incrementally deliver those “slices” of their SOA infrastructure that deliver upon these objectives. Microsoft has long advocated this approach—what we call our “real world” approach to leveraging service oriented architectures. This real world approach is focused on rapid time-to-value, and on delivering business results through iterative, incremental steps that are more closely aligned with changing business conditions. This helps enable a much tighter degree of alignment between business and IT.

Q: Is SOA a product?

No. SOA is not a product, but an architecture approach and set of patterns for implementing agile, loosely coupled dynamic applications.

There are numerous misconceptions about what SOA is—that it is a product that can be purchased (it is not; it is a design philosophy that informs how the solution should be built); that the goal is to build a SOA (it is not; SOA is a means to an end); or that SOA requires a complete technological and business process overhaul (it doesn’t; SOA solutions should be incremental and built on current investments).

SOA is also often equated with Web services, and the terms used interchangeably. While it is true that SOA is made easier and more pervasive through the broad adoption of Web services–based standards and protocols, the two are distinct. SOA is an approach to designing systems—in effect, the architectural drawings or blueprint—that directs how IT resources will be integrated and which services will be exposed for use. In contrast, Web services is an implementation methodology that uses specific standards and language protocols to execute on a SOA solution.

Q: Why use SOA?

Complex, distributed IT resources are a concern for businesses. Too frequently, the existing IT portfolio does not adequately meet specific business needs, is costly to manage and maintain and is inflexible in the face of business growth and change. The problem for IT departments is typically not insufficient functionality; rather, it is that critical business systems such as customer relationship management (CRM) and enterprise resource planning (ERP) operate in isolation from other critical business systems—despite the fact that business processes often span multiple applications.

To obtain an end-to-end view of a complex business process necessitates integration of information and process silos. In the past, this has been accomplished either though time-consuming manual interventions, or through hard-coded solutions that are difficult to maintain. The solution, however, is not to rip and replace systems or applications, nor to completely renovate them, but rather to find a way to leverage existing IT investments so that overall organizational goals are effectively supported.

Service orientation helps to accomplish these goals by making systems more responsive to business needs, simpler to develop, and easier to maintain and manage. Service orientation modularizes IT resources, creating loosely coupled business processes that integrate information across business systems. Implementing a solution architecture based upon service orientation helps organizations plan ahead for change, rather than responding reactively.

Q: Who does SOA?

Strictly speaking, SOA is done by developers and solution architects. However, stakeholders in a service-oriented solution span a range of roles, and it is critical that their interests not only be taken into account but that they actively drive the design of the SOA solution.

  • Starting with those interests, the business analyst is concerned with bringing IT investments more in line with the business strategy. For the developer, this means that the SOA solution must map the sources of business information—systems, staff, trading partners—into a unified and comprehensive view such that the business analyst has greater insight into the costs and benefits of various investments.
  • The chief technology officer (CTO) of the organization will work with developers to ensure that when designing a solution to meet the needs of the business analyst, the integrity of existing IT systems and applications resources are preserved, even as new capabilities are developed.
  • And the IT manager, concerned with effectively integrating distributed systems such that management is simplified, will work with the developer to ensure that these goals are also met.

Ultimately, the developers and solution architects are concerned with creating dynamic collaborative applications that meet the goals of the various stakeholders. The service orientation approach enables them to do so in a way that meets the needs of the organization as a whole.

Q: How long has Microsoft been using Service Orientation? What is the WS-* architecture?

A reflection of its commitment to developing the standards, guidance, tools and technologies needed for developing cross-platform integration solutions, Microsoft has been using service orientation across its products since 1999, when the Web services model was announced and a wave of innovation began that fundamentally changed the application architecture landscape. Beginning with version 1.0 of the .NET Framework, the Microsoft investments in tools, together with platform support for Web services, have helped make Service Orientation mainstream and practical.

Working with other vendors such as IBM and BEA, we invested in authoring a set of specifications referred to collectively as the WS-* architecture. Shortly thereafter, in order to promote interoperability across platforms, operating systems and programming languages, Microsoft worked with IBM to develop the Web Services Interoperability Organization (WS-I). Since it was created, WS-I has grown to roughly 150 member companies and has created Web services that address areas such as interoperability, security and the reliability of messaging.

Q: What is the Microsoft SOA solution approach?

Microsoft SOA solutions help organizations access existing IT resources, assemble them into larger business processes, and make the outputs available to users in order to run their organization more effectively. This “real world” approach lets organizations begin with a focused understanding of the business problem and realize rapid success.

From a more technical standpoint, the Microsoft approach can be summarized as a three-step approach: expose, compose and consume.

1. In the expose phase, existing IT resources (such as legacy systems and line of business applications) are made available as services which can be communicated with through standardized messaging formats. The most common suite of implementation technologies is the standards-based Web services. For existing technology assets that cannot natively speak Web service protocols, interoperability is attained through the use of adapters. As the developer moves forward in deliberations about which services to expose, such decisions must be driven by clearly defined and prioritized business needs.

2. Once individual services are exposed, they must be pulled together or composed into larger business processes or workflows. The goal of the compose phase is to enable greater business flexibility and agility by allowing processes to be added or changed without being constrained by the underlying IT systems and applications.

3. In the final step of constructing an SOA solution, the dynamic (or composite) applications that consume the underlying services and processes are developed. These applications—based on Web technologies (such as portals or AJAX), rich clients, Office business applications, or mobile devices—are what drive the productivity of the end-user.

It is important to recognize that all three steps are essential parts of every incremental SOA project. Without all three elements—including the delivery of the dynamic application—the business will not realize any return on the investment.

Q: Will an SOA solution require a complete overhaul of technologies and business processes?

No. The most effective approach to SOA is to build on existing investments, including legacy applications, and to take an incremental approach to integrating across diverse systems to provide specific business benefits. And because the underlying applications are accessed through an interface, the IT assets are insulated from direct change.

Q: Isn’t implementing an SOA solution a costly and complex proposition?

While some SOA-based solutions require a multiplicity of products to implement, increasing cost and complexity, Microsoft solutions are greatly simplified since core service orientation capabilities are built right into the Windows platform as part of the .NET framework. These core capabilities are complemented with an integrated set of development and management tools, as well as server-based solutions for composing and integrating dynamic, composite applications.

Q: Is SOA technology only for large Fortune 1000 enterprises?

No. The Microsoft “real world” SOA approach has been successfully adopted by organizations with very modest IT resources, since it can readily scale down to fit within their existing IT capabilities. At the same time, the Microsoft approach to SOA scales to the largest of global enterprises, supporting mission-critical processes for hundreds of thousands of employees worldwide.

Q: How do I get started with an SOA solution?

The goal of the SOA approach is to deliver a business solution that enables business agility, not to build a SOA. Reuse of services is often stated as a goal of SOA, and while it is true that reuse can be a good by-product of SOA, it is not the end goal itself. The first step in any SOA implementation, therefore, is to identify key business integration challenges or priorities. Development efforts, implemented along principles of SOA, are chosen such that they: 1) best meet the stated business needs, 2) offer the fastest time to value, and 3) best support long-term growth of the business.

Q: What are common SOA pitfalls?

One of the most common pitfalls is to view SOA as an end, rather than a means to an end. Developers who focus on building an SOA solution rather than solving a specific business problem are more likely to create complex, unmanageable and unnecessary interconnections between IT resources.

Another common pitfall is to try to solve multiple problems at once, rather than solving small pieces of the problem. Taking a top-down approach—starting with major organization-wide infrastructure investments—often fails either to show results in a relevant timeframe or to offer a compelling return on investment.

BPM FAQ’s

Q: What is a “business process”?

Business process is a set of linked steps or activities that taken together result in a specific business outcome, either internal or external to the organization. Documenting business processes involves describing what is done, why it is done, how it is done, who (or what system) does it, as well as how well it is done. Business processes may be structured or unstructured, depending on the extent to which the underlying steps are fixed and therefore automated or changeable.

Q: What is Business Process Management (BPM)?

Business process management (BPM) is a management discipline that combines a process-centric and cross-functional approach to improving how organizations achieve their business goals. Business processes underlie all organizational efforts, and the effectiveness with which they are carried out contributes directly to critical business goals such as customer retention, length of time it takes to fulfill a product order or service, or regulatory compliance. A BPM solution provides the tools that help make these processes explicit, as well as the functionality to help business managers control and change both manual and automated workflows.

Q: What are the origins of BPM?

Business process management has its origins in total quality management and business process reengineering. While it adds to these a technological framework, it is more than just the combination of these disciplines. BPM is an IT enabled management discipline that promotes organizational agility and supports the efforts of people to drive process change and rapid innovation. As such, BPM supports the alignment of IT and business activities both within the organization and with business partners and suppliers.

Q: Who does BPM?

Business process management is inherently a cross-disciplinary exercise involving personnel from all areas of the organization—from the process owners who are responsible for getting the day to day operational work done, to the department heads who are responsible for managing divisional areas, to the CXOs of the organization providing oversight and direction. That said, most organizations appoint or hire a point person to oversee the BPM process. That person, often referred to as a business analyst or process architect, generally comes from the business side of the organization, but has a strong enough understanding of IT to serve as an effective liaison with the IT department.

Business process management is inherently a cross-disciplinary exercise involving personnel from all areas of the organization—from the process owners who are responsible for getting the day to day operational work done, to the department heads who are responsible for managing divisional areas, to the CXOs of the organization providing oversight and direction. That said, most organizations appoint or hire a point person to oversee the BPM process. That person, often referred to as a business analyst or process architect, generally comes from the business side of the organization, but has a strong enough understanding of IT to serve as an effective liaison with the IT department.

Q: What is the BPM lifecycle?

The BPM lifecycle is an interative process with several stages: planning, model and design, develop and deploy, manage and interact, analyze and optimize.

  • Planning. The initial planning stage consists of identifying and prioritizing a short list of candidate BPM projects, identifying key players whose input is critical to project success, and establishing the governance to ensure that the BPM project stays on track throughout all of the iterative stages of the cycle.
  • Model and Design. Modeling business processes that span people and systems within the organization, as well as those that reach across to the business partners in the supply chain, enables you to clearly and explicitly lay out each step in a business process, including the critical touch points across people and disparate systems.
  • Develop and Deploy. Armed with the detailed model of the business process and the underlying business rules, the IT developer maps the business needs onto the underlying technologies that contribute to the complete solution. Using BPM tools to uncouple business rules from their underlying technologies, the IT developer abstracts these rules to a layer independent of the systems and applications, then joins the logical components into a “composite application” that combines the functionality of underlying systems.
  • Manage and Interact. With the BPM solution for a specific business process in place, end users interact with the process as it runs though the various process stages. At the same time, business users can monitor for potentially disruptive events along the various steps of the workflow process, and take appropriate action as required. In the background, IT staff manage the entire automated business process solution to ensure that the running process continues to meet capacity and availability standards.
  • Analyze and Optimize. Information derived from performance metrics is critical in driving the iterative process of optimizing the business practices and policies that support organizational goals. The most effective BPM systems enables IT staff or non-technical business users to optimize business rules in real-time, an iterative process that enables rule change, versioning and simple execution.

Q: Which business processes are good candidates for an initial BPM project?

Look for two things. Those processes that have considerable impact on your organization’s ability to achieve its goals either in the short or long term. And those processes, which if improved, will enable your organization to realize a high return on investment. Look at areas where there are known complaints, whether from customers, trading partners or internal staff. At the root of these complaints are processes that are ineffective and require reworking, streamlining, or better management.

Because organizational buy-in is so critical to the success of business process management, the project that has the greatest support for the BPM process may be the most effective place to start. A successful BPM experience in one area of the organization will help create enthusiasm for subsequent projects in other areas.

Q: What are the benefits of BPM?

The reasons for embarking on a business process management effort are as varied as the organizations that undergo the endeavor, but most organizations are driven by the following benefits:

  • Increased customer retention, gained through better, faster customer sales and services, as well as providing customers better access to resources and information
  • Reduced process time, gained through process optimization and efficiencies
  • Improved regulatory compliance, gained through improved process control, regulation and monitoring
  • Improved efficiencies across organizational boundaries such as departments, branches and trading partners
  • Reuse and create new IT assets, through integration with legacy applications and the creation of new composite applications that help to overcome their limitations
  • Greater personal productivity and satisfaction, resulting from greater insight into processes and improved workflow
  • Reduced risk, reduced waste and more profitable allocation of human resources
  • Increased agility through compression of BPM lifecycle, allowing for more rapid process innovation and response to changing business conditions

Q: What are the challenges associated with BPM?

Successful business process management initiatives require both near and long term planning and goal setting, and the goals and means by which to achieve them must be supported by executives across the organization. Without clear alignment on the goals and commitment to the BPM process, organizational resistance will defeat the initiative.

BPM also requires strong communication both within and across departmental boundaries. A strong business analyst or process architect is key to ensuring that the BPM process remains on track as well as ensuring effective communication throughout the initiative. The individual in this role ensures continuous alignment between business and IT since failure to keep business personnel engaged in the process can too readily result in IT solutions that fail to meet business goals.

Q: How do I get started with BPM?

It is critical that to have a BPM process architect who understands both business requirements and technical solutions. In addition to garnering organizational buy-in and choosing an initial project that targets a weak process directly impacting the customer, as well as one that offers a high return on investment, it is imperative to choose the right business process management solution to support the BPM process.

Q: How do I choose a BPM Solution?

BPM enabling technologies span a broad spectrum of activities, but can be generalized as supporting either activities that are unstructured (such as ad-hoc or collaborative tasks) or activities that are highly structured and often transactional in nature. Unstructured or human-workflow activities are supported by tools that center on the information worker; structured (or straight through processing) activities are supported by traditional IT business applications and integration middleware.

It’s important to look for comprehensive BPM solutions that:

  • support both human-centric and straight through processing activities
  • offer a solution framework rather than simply a point solution (necessitating multiple point solutions)
  • support process standards enabling integration across different platforms and with different line of business applications
  • support integration across business partners
  • provide business users with the ability to define the business rules that make up business processes, without IT programming
  • provide visibility into business processes, enabling real-time monitoring and event management

Q: What are the key differentiators of the Microsoft BPM solution?

The Microsoft business process management solution—a BPM system—is built upon the Microsoft application platform technology stack and spans both structured and unstructured processes. The BPM system provides a comprehensive set of tools, servers, patterns and practices for creating reliable, enterprise-grade BPM solutions.

  • People-Ready Processes. The Microsoft BPM system empowers people to drive success for their businesses. This is in contrast to older business process reengineering type initiatives, which were about automating people out of the process. Because people are a critical part of effective processes, the Microsoft BPM system is built to enable business stakeholders to design, interact with, monitor, and innovate critical business processes.
  • Easy To Use. The Microsoft BPM system uses familiar tools and environments that considerable numbers of end-users are already productive with, such as Office for business users and analysts, and Visual Studio for developers. By building upon this existing experience base, organizations can quickly become productive using the BPM system, and can incrementally deliver new innovation through use of many tools already owned.
  • Breadth of Process Support. Only the Microsoft BPM system addresses the full spectrum of business processes from highly unstructured processes (human and document centric) to highly structured and transactional system processes. Most existing vendors focus on just portions of the spectrum, or have tried gain breadth by cobbling together numerous acquired tools.
  • Integrated Platform for BPM. Microsoft BPM system is built upon a common application platform that enables businesses to realize the strategic business benefits of BPM. This platform provides an integrated set of capabilities around user presentation, process, business analytics, and development tools. The net result is a BPM solution that delivers greater agility and lower TCO than competitive solutions.

BPM and SOA FAQ(Frequently Asked Questions)


What is Business Process Management?

Business Process Management (BPM) is a system of enterprise administration that both reviews and carries out a company’s business processes. Essentially, BPM is an information system that is able to comprehensively gather data from throughout an enterprise which it then uses to make automated decisions for everything from day-to-day workflow to shifts in business strategy. The rapidly evolving technology has come to administer not only workflow but many other complex aspects of business processes as well. Included are tools for collaboration, tools for development, marketplace applications as well as application servers and rule-creation engines so that the BPM activities can be easily modified by administrative specialists. The advantages of BPM are clear, as evidenced by its ability to cut costs by streamlining processes throughout the corporate world. BPM does this by enabling businesses to convert their existing processes into an automated, codified system of task execution that is highly accessible to both monitoring and as needed modifications that can be made without interrupting the workflow in real time.

How do I implement Business Process Management software?

Busines Process Management software can often be implemented in a way that reflects the existing technological infrastructure of you company.  For example, if you are already using ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning), then the Business Process Management software that you adopt must be able to straddle this platform.

Successfully implementing Business Process Management software often requires the assistance of a consultant, or team of BPM consultants.  In this way, Business Process Managment professionals can assist you in determining whether or not you need a CRM (Customer Relations Management) interface, integration technology or any combination of a variety of other solutions to optimize your workflow.

In order for business processes to properly reach completion, data must be pulled from a variety of disparate programs. Often these incompatible platforms correspond to different departments, each of which represents an important stage in the business process. In order to consolidate information various methods of information unification have been implemented over the years. At the same time, many software programs have been developed to better speed up companies’ workflow. But not until BPM technology has there been a system that can both centralize data as well as conduct tasks based upon the information it receives. That’s why the concept of business process management has had huge success with business leaders everywhere. Many experts agree that by automating business processes company leaders will not only dramatically reduce expenses but will also be able to devote more time to strategic planning.

What are the benefits of BPM consulting?

BPM consulting is an invaluable part of nearly every business process management package. Whether implementing workflow software for the first time, maintaining an in-place system or upgrading from any variety of interfaces—including ERP—accessing the help of a consultant or BPM consulting firm is essential.

That’s because getting past the obstacles to your enterprises’ requires careful analyses of your process management needs. Seeking either domestic or international BPM consulting services is crucial to the sensitive nature of these software applications. After all, your company is stringing together processes that span the entire enterprise. It’s more complicated than simply plugging in a few numbers here and there. Indeed, your company’s management needs BPM consulting in order to apply the most productive, efficient and profitable approach to BPM integration.

Any consulting firm for business process management can recognize the importance of bringing your business onto the path of successful on-demand activity. Transactions occurring on the electronic level are increasingly becoming commonplace these days, but simply implementing BPM software is far from the end of the story. Having the right strategy in place is paramount to your success.

For practically any industry, the conditions in the marketplace are always in flux. Ranging from changing economies to altered customer behavior patterns, the need for having a solid action plan in place—all the time—is great. That’s why a qualified BPM consulting firm is able to actually leverage the years of experience that its teams of professionals will bring to the table. Whether its system analysis, new product integration, technology or more, a BPM consulting firm will guide you toward success.

What is Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)?

Enterprise resource planning is an incredibly effective way of putting together business processes so that they work together efficiently. Commonly known as ERP, the system of management integrates vital enterprise functions that range from logistical operations such as shipping and inventory to human resources like accounting and invoicing. In addition, the ERP implementations that enjoy the most success also integrate methods of ERP database management with manufacturing, distribution and a wide variety of other important business processes that play a major role in enterprise resource planning.

ERP database methods and software that encompasses the planning of resource management throughout an enterprise is typically described as a back end system, as it often has little to do with the business processes that manage customer relations or, alternatively, the vendors that supply goods and services to the company itself.

Essentially, a highly functional enterprise resource planning infrastructure will span the management of a wide number of database methods and ERP functions throughout an enterprise and its multiple departments.

While it’s been a major boon to companies that would otherwise hand-code their business processes, an integrated ERP database can appear rather limited in its methods of comprehensive organization when compared to a business process management (BPM) system that not only integrates back end processes, but also plays a major role in taking a comprehensive approach to the integration of customer relationship management (CRM) into the workflow solution.

What is a Content Management System (CMS)?

One of the key features of a content management system (CMS) is its ability to efficiently integrate content input with large scale website editing processes.  The workflow for CMS process management functions by allowing authors to enter content that a CMS can then manage by storing, formatting, modifying, etc. A CMS typically delivers integrated functionality and display for websites with internet and/or intranet capabilities on an enterprise-wide level.

Typically a CMS workflow solution within a business process management application involves large scale websites with thousands of pages. Input content that can be managed by a CMS may include simple text pages, formatted pages, materials for training, business documents, manuals published online, active database content, end user edits and high level linkage in between pages. In addition, a CMS allows multiple authors to simultaneously add content.

Given these capabilities, a good CMS business process workflow solution can facilitate significant workflow applications so that input content can be effectively passed through the appropriate channels for human edits, formatting and various other applications

What does SOA do?

SOA systematically collects, analyzes and processes data significant for the national security. SOA endeavours to detect and prevent activities aimed at threatening the independence and sovereignty of the Republic of Croatia, violent subversion of state authorities, basic freedom and human rights guaranteed by the Constitution and other laws, and the basic economic system of the Republic of Croatia.

Abroad, SOA systematically collects, analyzes, processes and evaluates the political, economic, security and military data relating to foreign countries, international governmental and non-governmental organizations, political, military and economic alliances, groups and individuals exhibiting intentions, capabilities, covert plans and secret activities aimed at threatening the national security.

How do I get started?

SOA is best approached as individual projects – each of which bring your business greater flexibility and service orientation. Successful SOA adoption is done incrementally stressing the importance of starting small, and scaling appropriately. IBM can help you identify what SOA projects make the most sense for you. For example, we have a brochure called “Five SOA projects that can pay for themselves in six months“. Regardless of whether you’re looking to SOA for an enterprise-level project, a tactical technology-level project or something in between, IBM can help you lay out a roadmap that makes sense for you. We have workshops available free of charge which can bring together IBM’s SOA architects and subject matter experts and your IT staff to help find projects to boost your business flexibility with quick financial return. Send a note to soa@us.ibm.com for more information.


What are the major benefits of SOA?

SOA helps create greater alignment between IT and line of business while generating more flexibility – IT flexibility to support greater business flexibility. Your business processes are changing faster and faster and global competition requires the flexibility that SOA can provide. SOA can help you get better reuse out of your existing IT investments as well as the new services you’re developing today. SOA makes integration of your IT investments easier by making use of well-defined interfaces between services. SOA also provides an architectural model for integrating business partners’, customers’ and suppliers’ services into an enterprise’s business processes. This reduces cost and improves customer satisfaction. Finally, SOA reduces business risk and exposure by helping you comply with proliferating government regulations, such as (in the United States) Sarbanes-Oxley, the US Patriot Act, etc.


What are the main obstacles?

According to a survey of six hundred senior executives around the world, the #1 barrier that companies are seeing to adopting SOA is shortage of skills. #2 was the difficulty in justifying the ROI of SOA projects. IBM helps break down these and other barriers. We can provide the skills and best practices that we’ve honed through over 1000 SOA customer engagements worldwide. We can help develop skills within your own organization and supplement with the expertise we have perfected. We can also help identify the right SOA projects for your organization to pursue with very attractive ROI.


Can I buy an SOA or must I build one?

To move your organization toward greater service orientation, you need to take a balanced approach to building versus buying. To create the infrastructure for an SOA, you’ll need the right commercial off-the-shelf software that complements (rather than replaces) your existing IT infrastructure. This is a “buy” statement. On the “build” side, you may also choose to access know-how and hands-on involvement to use these software products effectively and get the most out of them. This infrastructure and the associated tools can help you create the business services that run on your SOA. Again, there is some “building” associated with this. So the real answer is that you need a certain measure of both building and buying. IBM has worked hard to develop software that satisfies the vast majority of repeatable business needs for SOA. At the same time, we have a deep portfolio of experience with past customers that we can access to help you meet any unique needs you may have. From both the build and buy perspective, IBM addresses the whole SOA Lifecycle – Model, Assemble, Deploy, Manage, and Governance – to help create an SOA environment that’s right for your specific needs.


How do I integrate with my legacy applications?

Legacy applications are frequently at the core of your IT environment. But many times, these essential applications are isolated and inaccessible to common skill sets. Without the right skills and tools, it can be difficult to integrate these core investments with the rest of your IT environment. However, IBM can make this much easier. IBM can help you identify discrete elements within your legacy applications and “wrap” them in standards-based interfaces and use them as services within your SOA. IBM can accelerate your integration efforts through the use of application and technology adapters that have been developed cooperatively with our many partners


How does the Enterprise Service Bus relate to SOA?

The Enterprise Service Bus is a core element of any SOA. ESBs provide the “any to any” connectivity between services within your own company, and beyond your business to connect to your trading partners. But SOA does not stop at just implementing an ESB. Depending on what your goals are, you may want to use an ESB to connect other services within your SOA such as information services, interaction services and business process management services. Additionally, you will need to consider development services and IT service management services. The SOA reference architecture can help you lay out an SOA environment that meets your needs and priorities. The ESB is part of this reference architecture and provides the backbone of an SOA but it should not be considered an SOA by itself.

Q. What is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)?
A. SOA is a standards-based design approach to creating an integrated IT infrastructure capable of rapidly responding to changing business needs. SOA provides the principles and guidance to transform a company’s existing array of heterogeneous, distributed, complex and inflexible IT resources into integrated, simplified and highly flexible resources that can be changed and composed to more directly support business goals.
Q. What business value does SOA provide?
A. SOA enables businesses to realize greater agility in their business practices, delivering value across both application and IT infrastructure layers. From an application perspective, SOA enables the development of a new generation of dynamic or composite applications. These applications enable end-users to access information and processes across functional boundaries, and to consume them in a number of convenient ways, including through Web, rich client, and mobile presentation layers. From an infrastructure perspective, SOA enables IT to simplify application and system integration, to recombine and reuse application functionality, and to organize development work into a unified and consistent design framework. The combined business value of the SOA approach helps to lower IT costs; provides better, more rapidly accessible business information; and enables the organization to identify and respond to workflow problems more efficiently.
Q. What business problems does SOA solve?
A. SOA enables businesses to develop a new generation of dynamic applications that address a number of top-level business concerns that are central to growth and competitiveness. SOA solutions promote:

Stronger connections with customers and suppliers. By making available dynamic applications and business services to external customers and suppliers, not only is richer collaboration possible, but customer and partner satisfaction is increased. SOA unlocks critical supply and demand chain processes—such as outsourcing of specific business tasks—from the constraints of underlying IT architectures, thereby enabling better alignment of processes with organizational strategy.
Enhanced business decision making. By aggregating access to business services and information into a set of dynamic, composite business applications, decision makers gain more accurate and more comprehensive information, and gain the flexibility to access that information in the form and presentation factor (Web, rich client, mobile device) that meets their needs.
Greater employee productivity. By providing streamlined access to systems and information and enabling business process improvement, businesses can drive greater employee productivity. Employees can focus their energies on addressing the important, value-added processes and on collaborative, semi-structured activities, rather than having to conform to the limitations and restrictions of the underlying IT systems.
Q. Will SOA enable alignment of business and IT?
A. SOA by itself is not sufficient to guarantee alignment of business and IT. In fact, many organizations that have attempted to roll out SOA infrastructure through a top-down approach have found that that by the time the infrastructure was delivered, it was out of sync with the needs of the business. In contrast, those customers that have driven successful alignment have started with a clear understanding of their business vision, have well-defined business initiatives and outcomes, and have chosen to incrementally deliver those “slices” of their SOA infrastructure that deliver upon these objectives. Microsoft has long advocated this approach—what we call our “real world” approach to leveraging service oriented architectures. This real world approach is focused on rapid time-to-value, and on delivering business results through iterative, incremental steps that are more closely aligned with changing business conditions. This helps enable a much tighter degree of alignment between business and IT.
Q. Is SOA a product?
A. No. SOA is not a product, but an architecture approach and set of patterns for implementing agile, loosely coupled dynamic applications. A reflection of its commitment to developing the standards, guidance, tools and technologies needed for developing cross-platform integration solutions, Microsoft has been using service orientation across its products since 1999, when the Web services model was announced and a wave of innovation began that fundamentally changed the application architecture landscape. Beginning with version 1.0 of the .NET Framework, the Microsoft investments in tools, together with platform support for Web services, have helped make Service Orientation mainstream and practical.

Working with other vendors such as IBM and BEA, we invested in authoring a set of specifications referred to collectively as the WS-* architecture. Shortly thereafter, in order to promote interoperability across platforms, operating systems and programming languages, Microsoft worked with IBM to develop the Web Services Interoperability Organization (WS-I). Since it was created, WS-I has grown to roughly 150 member companies and has created Web services that address areas such as interoperability, security and the reliability of messaging.

Q. Will implementing an SOA solution require a complete overhaul of existing technologies and business processes?
A. No. The most effective approach to SOA is to build on existing investments, including legacy applications, and to take an incremental approach to integrating across diverse systems to provide specific business benefits. And because the underlying applications are accessed through an interface, the IT assets are insulated from direct change.
Q. Isn’t implementing an SOA solution a costly and complex proposition?
A. While some SOA-based solutions require a multiplicity of products to implement, increasing cost and complexity, Microsoft solutions are greatly simplified since core service orientation capabilities are built right into the Windows platform as part of the .NET framework. These core capabilities are complemented with an integrated set of development and management tools, as well as server-based solutions for composing and integrating dynamic, composite applications.
Q. Is SOA technology only for large Fortune 1000 enterprises?
A. No. The Microsoft “real world” SOA approach has been successfully adopted by organizations with very modest IT resources, since it can readily scale down to fit within their existing IT capabilities. At the same time, the Microsoft approach to SOA scales to the largest of global enterprises, supporting mission-critical processes for hundreds of thousands of employees world wide.
Q. What is the Microsoft SOA solution approach?
A. Microsoft SOA solutions help organizations access existing IT resources, assemble them into larger business processes, and make the outputs available to users in order to run their organization more effectively. This “real world” approach lets organizations begin with a focused understanding of the business problem and realize rapid success.

From a more technical standpoint, the Microsoft approach can be summarized as a three-step approach: expose, compose and consume.

1. In the expose phase, existing IT resources (such as legacy systems and line of business applications) are made available as services which can be communicated with through standardized messaging formats. The most common suite of implementation technologies is the standards-based Web services. For existing technology assets that cannot natively speak Web service protocols, interoperability is attained through the use of adapters. As the developer moves forward in deliberations about which services to expose, such decisions must be driven by clearly defined and prioritized business needs.
2. Once individual services are exposed, they must be pulled together or composed into larger business processes or workflows. The goal of the compose phase is to enable greater business flexibility and agility by allowing processes to be added or changed without being constrained by the underlying IT systems and applications.
3. In the final step of constructing an SOA solution, the dynamic (or composite) applications that consume the underlying services and processes are developed. These applications—based on Web technologies (such as portals or AJAX), rich clients, Office business applications, or mobile devices—are what drive the productivity of the end-user.

It is important to recognize that all three steps are essential parts of every incremental SOA project. Without all three elements—including the delivery of the dynamic application—the business will not realize any return on the investment.

Q. How do I get started with an SOA solution?
A. The goal of the SOA approach is to deliver a business solution that enables business agility, not to build a SOA. Reuse of services is often stated as a goal of SOA, and while it is true that reuse can be a good by-product of SOA, it is not the end goal itself. The first step in any SOA implementation, therefore, is to identify key business integration challenges or priorities. Development efforts, implemented along principles of SOA, are chosen such that they: 1) best meet the stated business needs, 2) offer the fastest time to value, and 3) best support long-term growth of the business.
Q. What are common SOA pitfalls?
A. One of the most common pitfalls is to view SOA as an end, rather than a means to an end. Developers who focus on building an SOA solution rather than solving a specific business problem are more likely to create complex, unmanageable, and unnecessary interconnections between IT resources.

Another common pitfall is to try to solve multiple problems at once, rather than solving small pieces of the problem. Taking a top-down approach—starting with major organization-wide infrastructure investments—often fails either to show results in a relevant timeframe or to offer a compelling return on investment

  1. What is Business Process Modeling (BPM)?

    Business Process Modeling (BPM) is the representation of current (“as is”) and proposed (“to be”) enterprise processes, so that they may be compared and contrasted. By comparing and contrasting current and proposed enterprise processes business analysts and managers can identify specific process transformations that can result in quantifiable improvements to their businesses.

  2. What is the difference between Business Process Modeling and business modeling?

    Although business modeling may be considered more generic than Business Process Modeling, the terms are largely synonymous, and they are frequently used interchangeably.

  3. How is Business Process Modeling related to the other BPM’s: Business Process Management, Business Process Monitoring, and Business Performance Management?

    In the business domain the BPM acronym is heavily overloaded with several different expansions which are related to each other. Business Process Monitoring refers to the the observation of enterprise processes. Business Process Management, which refers to all activities that manage enterprise processes, is the most generic term and subsumes the others.

  4. What are the industry standard languages for Business Process Modeling?

    Business Process Modeling is supported by a mix of emerging industry standards that include the following:

    * Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) — BPMN is a graphic notation for representing business processes. BPMN defines a Business Process Diagram, which is based on flowcharting techniques customized for business processes, and a mapping to BPEL executable semantics (see below). The BPMN industry standard is maintained by the OMG. For more information about the BPMN check out the BPMN Forum.
    * Unified Modeling Language (UML) — UML is the industry-standard visual modeling language for specifying software-intensive systems, and it can also be used to model business processes. In particular, UML Activity diagrams provide many of the workflow modeling constructs furnished by BPMN. The UML industry standard is maintained by the OMG. For more information about the UML check out the UML Forum.
    * Business Process Executable Language (BPEL) — BPEL is an XML-based executable language for representing business processes. BPEL is an orchestration language (cf. choreography language, such as WS-CDL), and consequently focuses on the view of one business participant. The BPEL industry standard is maintained by OASIS.
    * Web Services Choreography Description Language (WS-CDL) — WS-CDL is an XML-based non-executable language that represents global business processes. WS-CDL is a choreography language (cf. orchestration language, such as BPEL), and consequently, describes peer-to-peer collaborations of multiple business participants working on a common business goal. The BPEL industry standard is maintained by W3C.

  5. When will the industry standards for Business Process Modeling converge?

    The linguistic divergence of Business Process Modeling languages is problematic for efficient communication and interoperability, since it perpetuates a Tower-of-Babel syndrome among the various business stakeholders. Since the Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI) merged with the OMG in 2005 there has been some hope that BPMN and UML Activity diagram notation will be merged in the near future. However, given the OMG’s poor track record regarding interoperability of modeling standards, such as UML 2.0, it is unlikely that this will happen soon.

  6. What is the difference between a graphic (visual) Business Process Modeling language and a non-graphic (text-based) Business Process Modeling language?

    These differences refer to variations in the concrete syntax (notation) of the Business Process Modeling languages. Graphic business modeling languages typically use a visual notation of 2-dimensional symbols (e.g., the “boxes and lines” used in BPMN and UML), whereas non-graphic business modeling languages use a text-based notation (e.g., BPEL, which is defined with XML notation).

    Many persons find visual notations easier to learn and apply, perhaps because they process visual information more efficiently than textual information. (This may have something to do with how the human brain is divided into left and right celebral hemispheres, and that individuals tend to emphasize one hemisphere over the other. For more information regarding this click here.)

  7. What is the difference between an executable Business Process Modeling language and a non-executable Business Process Modeling language?

    These differences refer to variations in the semantics (meanings) of the Business Process Modeling languages. Executable Business Process Modeling languages are associated with precise semantics that can be used to automatically validate and simulate business processes (e.g., BPEL, UML Action Semantics) whereas non-executable Business Process Modeling languages lack precise semantics (e.g., BPMN).

  8. What is the relationship between BPMN and BPEL?

    BPMN is a visual notation for Business Process Modeling, whereas BPEL is a text-based (XML-based) Business Process Modeling language which includes precise execution semantics. BPMN defines a mapping of its visual notation to BPEL execution semantics, so that the best features of both these standards can be synergistally combined.

  9. What is the relationship between BPEL and WS-CDL?

    Both BPEL and WS-CDL are XML-based languages, but BPEL is executable and is an orchestration language (i.e., focuses on the view of a single business participant), whereas WS-CDL is non-executable and is a choreography language (i.e., describes peer-to-peer collaborations of multiple business participants)